The U.S.-Mexican boundary line has been the puting for America ‘s longest war, the drug war. The first shootings of the drug war at the boundary line were fired during a U.S. Custom ‘s operation on September 21, 1969. The standing president of the United States at that clip was Richard Nixon and it was he who ab initio declared war on illegal drugs. The U.S. Custom ‘s Intercept Operation influenced a one-sided closure of the boundary line by the U.S. authorities. This closure exposed the mutuality of boundary line abode which affected them greatly and negatively. The boundary line encirclement ‘s existent consequence on stemming the tide of illegal drugs traversing the boundary line was negligible ( Payan, 2006 ) .
This thesis will research current patterns of boundary line security on the boundary line between the United States and Mexico. It will analyze the impact of boundary line security on illegal drugs traversing over to the United States from Mexico. This thesis paper will besides reply the inquiry: How important of an impact on illegal drug trafficking do the patterns and processs of the boundary line patrol enforcement hold?
Bilateral cooperation between the United States and Mexico has become a hallmark of international American dealingss in recent old ages. The acme between the two states ‘ leaders exemplifies the on-going attempts of both states commitment to turn to affair of common concern. As declared by the Mexican President, “ The most urgent issue between the two states is drug trafficking and drug ingestion ” ( Sanchez, 2001 ) .
This thesis will non cover American or Mexican sea ports, American or Mexican airdromes and anything that coincides with these subjects. Furthermore, this paper will non entertain any subjective position on the subject at manus, but will objectively analyze what is go oning on the boundary line and if applicable give likely solutions to stem the tide of illegal drug trafficking.
2: History of Illegal Drugs Entering U.S.
The United States ‘ love matter with illegal drugs began in the counterculture of the 1960 ‘s. American ‘s appetency for illegal drugs has escalated from marihuana to heroin and cocaine to the chemical substances consumed in cabarets throughout the state. This turning appetency for illegal drugs increased the hazards of covering them and besides increased the net incomes of making so. Many illegal drug runners and manufacturers entered the concern of illegal drug trafficking because the costs of smuggling drugs into the United States were reasonably low every bit good as the opportunities of acquiring caught.
In the 1970 ‘s, illegal drug trafficking boomed all along the United States and Mexican boundary line. The market was big and turning with plentifulness of willing providers. Several little packs in Mexico sprung up to get down illegal drug trafficking operations along the United States and Mexican boundary line. Mexico was a major provider of marihuana and diacetylmorphine. The Columbians supplied most of the cocaine by manner of the Caribbean ( Payan, 2006 ) .
The United States stemmed the flow of cocaine from Colombia through a series of operations in the Caribbean in the early 1980 ‘s. The Colombians shortly discovered Mexico and its broad unfastened boundary line with the United States. Two 1000 stat mis of mostly unprotected boundary line into the largest illegal drug market in the universe could non travel unnoticed for long and this became an unbelievable plus for the Columbians.
The Columbians allied themselves with an established Mexican drug seller named Miguel Angel Felix Gallardo. He had consolidated many of the little illegal drug smuggling operations of the 1960 ‘s and 1970 ‘s into a individual organisation going the chief participant of the illegal drug trade along the boundary line. Gallardo ‘s organisation was already in topographic point and served as a conveyer belt for Columbian cocaine. The Columbian and Gallardo confederation bloomed into a formidable drug Cartel that operated freely through the 1980 ‘s ( Payan, 2006 ) .
Types of Drugs Entering U.S.
How Illegal Drugs are Entering U.S.
The media negotiations about illegal drugs being smuggled into the United States by undocumented migrators and has us believe they are the chief beginning of traveling illegal drugs. The overpowering bulk of undocumented migrators cross the boundary line on pes between ports of entry and have nil to make with drug smuggling. Most illegal drugs cross the boundary line into the United States at official points of entry or POE ‘s and hidden in vehicles. Cocaine, diacetylmorphine and Methedrines are excessively valuable to put on the line traversing between official points of entry in the wilderness. Smugglers can be intercepted by a United States Border Agent, doing considerable losingss to an illegal drug organisation, harmonizing to Tony Payan of South Atlantic Quarterly ( Payan, 2006 ) .
The few who risk traversing the boundary line are nickel-and-dime runners and are largely novitiates or people who work for nickel-and-dime drug traders. They may present as backpackers or effort to traverse the boundary line with drugs hidden on their organic structures at points of entry. These people are recruited by nickel-and-dime drug traders and are trained to boost certain trails that may or may non co-occur with the preferable paths of undocumented migrators. The sum of drugs that can be transported by a prosaic is little compared to the sums that can be hidden in a vehicle.
A more favorite method for transporting illegal drugs is by manner of motor vehicle. Cars, new waves and pickup trucks are used and to ease this more hard method, many traders build webs of employees and administrative officials who are willing to offer protection to the organisation ‘s operations through final payments. These organisations pay non merely Mexican but American functionaries handsome wagess for safe transition of their illegal lading and minimise the hazard of losing their ware. To derive farther protection, these organisations build particular compartments in the vehicles where the illegal drugs can be hidden ( Payan, 2006 ) .
A vehicle equipped in such a mode is called a nail or clavos. The secret compartments tend to be behind splashboards, in the gas armored combat vehicles, the trim tyre or some other secret compartment in the organic structure of the vehicle. The illegal drugs are wrapped in tin foil, fictile wrap or other packaging stuff. In some cases the bundles are basted in substances such as oils, gasolene or aromas to mask the odor of the illegal drugs so that they are non detected by drug whiffing Canis familiariss during review of the vehicle at the cheque point.
A clavos can do it across the boundary line in two ways. The first manner is by strictly taking a opportunity. They will demo up in hopes of non being detected by the boundary line agents. The other manner is traveling in groups of vehicles including one of these vehicles being easy noticeable. The agents will be distracted by this 1 flop and may pretermit thorough review of the other vehicles traversing at that same minute.
The significance of the U.S. Customs Intercept operation of 1969 ( discussed in earlier chapters ) resides in a individual fact: It inaugurated an age of illegal drug policy that resulted in the creative activity and the consolidation of a few big drug trusts. Furthermore, it increased the effectivity of their drug operations and brought with it an escalation of force between jurisprudence enforcement and these condemnable organisations.
Corruptness is cardinal in any illegal industry and drug trafficking is no exclusion. Corruptness assures the flow of illegal drugs on both sides of the Mexican and United States boundary line. It has besides strengthened the manus of big drug trusts because they are the lone 1s with the necessary financess ( 1000000s of dollars ) it takes to maintain the illegal drug trade running every bit swimmingly as possible.
Drug trusts may hold 1000s of employees. Their employees include purchasers, spotters, runners, arms pimps, executioners and comptrollers. Law enforcement and politicians are indirectly employed by the trusts by manner of wage offs. Mexican boundary line jurisprudence enforcement are to a great extent penetrated and are considered critical because they can guarantee that illegal drug operations can be conducted without intervention. Trusts are going professionalized by engaging extremely educated persons who serve as public dealingss officers. These public dealingss officers in bend recruit the aid of other professionals such as comptrollers, business communities to wash money, jurisprudence enforcement functionaries, physicians and attorneies.
3: History and Origins of Border Security
The 1980 ‘s and 1990 ‘s saw a important addition of illegal migration and drug trafficking into the United States through Mexico. The United States Border Patrol responded with additions in work force and the execution of modern engineering. Infrared night-vision Scopess, seismal detectors and a modern computing machine processing system helps the boundary line patrol locate, apprehend and procedure those traversing into the United States illicitly.
4: Boundary line Patrol Enforcement
The Department of Homeland Security was established on March 1, 2003 and was the largest reorganisation of our federal authorities in over 50 old ages. As portion of the reorganisation, U.S. Customs and Border Protection ( CBP ) was created. The CBP was created by uniting all frontline forces and their maps with jurisprudence enforcement duties at all United States boundary lines. This includes over three 100 ports of entry of the United States and all countries between the official ports of entry ( U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 2011 ) .
For the first clip in history, the United States was able to plan a comprehensive scheme for the state ‘s boundary lines. CBP is the boundary line agent for the United States. At the boundary line points of entry, CBP is made up of U.S. Customs, INS and the Animal Plant Health Inspection Service. The Border Patrol, which was transferred integral from The INS to the CBP, is responsible for everything between the ports of entry. With the creative activity of CBP, one bureau has the duty for the full boundary line of the state, for all intents. The Border Patrol is an highly of import operational constituent of CBP and their scheme compliments the national scheme for procuring U.S. ports of entry as good. A concatenation is merely every bit strong as its weakest nexus, so, it would make little good to procure the ports and non between the ports or frailty versa.
The Border Patrol has an ambitious end for its National Strategy. The new National Strategy embracings and physiques upon many of the elements of Operation Gatekeeper and Operation Hold the Line. However, it goes beyond the disincentive scheme embodied in those operations and it is more than a scheme merely for the southwest boundary line. The National Strategy of the Border Patrol consists of six nucleus elements to include: procuring the right combination of forces, engineering and substructure ; bettering mobility and rapid deployment to rapidly counter and interdict based on displacements in smuggling paths and tactical intelligence ; deploying defense-in-depth that makes full usage of interior checkpoints and enforcement operations calculated to deny successful migration ; organizing and partnering with other jurisprudence enforcement bureaus to accomplish their ends ; bettering boundary line consciousness and intelligence ; and beef uping the central offices command construction ( U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 2011 ) .
Achieving the new Border Patrol Strategy requires holding the right combination of extremely trained and good equipt agents, integrated sensing and detector engineering, air and marine assets and strategically located tactical substructure. The Border Patrol usage unmanned aerial vehicles ( UAV ‘s ) wherever they can help. In 2004, the Border Patrol became the first civilian jurisprudence enforcement bureau in the universe to utilize UAV ‘s to transport out a civilian jurisprudence enforcement mission.
The scheme provides the model for the Border Patrol to be after and transport out its missions within the Department of Homeland Security. It provides the necessary ends, aims, schemes and steps for Border Patrol planning and operations and will be used as the footing for direction determinations and resource deployment.
The southwest boundary line with Mexico is about two-thousand stat mis long, some of which consists of highly inhospitable and rough terrain. Hundreds of illegal immigrants die each twelvemonth as a consequence of failed smuggling missions while trying to traverse the United States and Mexican Border. There are three primary smuggling corridors within these two-thousand stat mis of boundary line which are: South Texas corridor ; West Texas/New Mexico corridor ; and California/Arizona corridor. These corridors are chiefly dictated by transit paths, geographics and population centres. There are more than one million arrests that the Border Patrol makes along the United States-Mexico boundary line and more than ninety per centum of those apprehensions are made within these smuggling corridors ( U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 2011 ) .
The Border Patrol feels that past experience has shown that a balanced mix of forces, engineering and boundary line substructure ( roads, visible radiations, fence and installations ) are critical to spread outing control over the Southern Border. The Border Patrol will construct on the successes won by the deployment of these resources on the Southern Border and go on to spread out province of the art detector engineerings, intelligence, accomplishments and preparation and nationally goaded deployment of forces and stuff.
U.S. Border Patrol
5: U.S. Laws on Illegal Drug Trafficking
6: Funding the Drug War
The international boundary line between the United States and Mexico runs from San Diego, California, in the West to Brownsville, Texas in the E. The boundary line traverses a assortment of terrain runing from major urban countries to inhospitable comeuppances. Harmonizing to the International Boundary and Water Commission, the boundary line ‘s entire length is 1,969 stat mis ( see appendix, Dia. 7.1, 7.2 ) . The boundary line between the United States and Mexico spans four U.S. provinces, six Mexican provinces and has over 20 commercial railway crossings. It is the most often crossed international boundary line in the universe with about 250 million people traversing it yearly ( Washington D.C. Migration Policy Institute, 2011 ) .
The part along the boundary is surrounded by comeuppances, rugged mountains and two major rivers. These rivers are the Colorado and the Rio Grande which provide life giving Waterss to the mostly waterless but fertile lands along the rivers in both states. The U.S. provinces along the boundary line running from E to west are: Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California. The Mexican provinces running along the boundary line are: Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. Texas has the longest stretch of boundary line of any U.S. province and California has the shortest boundary line with Mexico. In Mexico, Chihuahua has the longest boundary line while Nuevo Leon has the shortest.
Approximately 11.8 million people live on and around the U.S.-Mexican boundary line. In the counties surrounding Mexico, about one one-fourth of the population live at or below the poorness line. This is over double the national norm which is 12 % . The unemployment rate in these southern U.S. boundary line counties is 5.6 % compared to 4.7 % in the remainder of the state. The Mexican Border States, nevertheless, have an mean poorness rate of 28 % which is significantly lower than the Mexican national norm of 37 % . The boundary line country in the United States consists of 48 counties in four provinces and about 300,000 people live in 1300 colonias in Texas and New Mexico. Colonias are unincorporated semi-rural communities filled with deficient lodging and insecure imbibing H2O and/or waste H2O systems. Communities on the Mexican side of the boundary line by and large have less entree to basic H2O and sanitation services than their American opposite numbers. ( Washington D.C. Migration Policy Institute ) .