In footings of the usage of word in the Australian Criminal Justice System, it is hard to province concretely whether it is over or under utilized peculiarly given the scope of benefits and disadvantages of the system, and from which perspective the single chooses to see word. Indeed, it may be more helpful to see the alterations that have occurred in the Australian felon justness system with respects to parole. Particular instances that problematic for the condemnable justness system and the community rise challenges. During the late 1990 ‘s there was increasing force per unit area to fasten the usage of word to restrict dangerousness in Australia. There were calls to fasten the statute law sing those that can be deemed to travel on word, peculiarly in relation to violent and serious wrongdoers which hazards are heightened. In relation to this peculiar alteration, attempts were made to guarantee that where the original sentencing justice deemed the person should non be released this will do it hard for the person to derive word at a ulterior phase ( Simpson, 1999 ) .
Small research has looked at the effectivity of word and the impact it has on degrees of piquing. However Jones et Al ( 2006 ) supply some valuable information about re-offending rates and the features of those that do pique whilst on word. In analyzing forms of reoffending in a sample of probationers from New South Wales, the findings revealed that two tierces of those released on word in the period between 2001 – 2002 reappeared in tribunal. 61 % of these persons were convicted for a new offense, which is a important proportion which raises serious concerns environing the efficaciousness of word as a rehabilitative system. Similarly, Thompson ( 1989 ) investigated rates of piquing among probationers and found that 38 % of probationers were imprisoned for perpetrating offenses within two old ages of being released on word. Jones et Al ( 2006 ) were besides able to place peculiar features of those who re-offended during their word. These wrongdoers were more likely to hold a higher figure of anterior tutelary sentences and therefore a longer history of piquing. In add-on they were besides more likely to hold drug strong beliefs, be younger and be of the autochthonal population. These findings raise serious concerns around the usage of word and inquiry what impact, if any it is holding on the person. By foregrounding the specific features of those who are more likely to re-offend during their word, this has shown that there are specific types of persons who possibly require extra monitoring or support/intervention during word to restrict their opportunities of reoffending. The issue of drugs and those with old strong beliefs suggests as being hazard factors to re-offending to boot high spots countries where the condemnable justness system needs to concentrate in order to guarantee better usage of word. This may include puting in more early sensing of wrongdoers and forestalling them from going repeaters, every bit good as more focal point around drug related offending every bit good as supplying support services to assist wrongdoers retrieve which may in consequence have an impact on cut downing reoffending.
On a differing note, there has been some grounds to uncover that word may hold a positive impact on cut downing reoffending. Ellis & A ; Marshall ( 2000 ) investigated parole and re-offending to happen that there was a little decrease in re-offending. Decrease was found among those with a higher hazard than those with a lower hazard. These findings suggest that word can so hold an impact on cut downing reoffending but may be specific to peculiar types of wrongdoers.
Carcach & A ; Grant ( 1999 ) see the lifting prison population in Australia and the factors that have an impact on prisons. The writers highlight that many factors impact on the imprisonment rates in prisons, critically one of which is the under usage of word as a early release option. This has a direct impact on prison over-crowding peculiarly if offense rates rise. This suggests that the usage of word is possibly underused by the condemnable justness system. Despite the jobs with the usage of word as a method, it is of import to equilibrate non merely the impact of word on the person but besides the impact of maintaining person in prison where there are serious jobs around prison over crowding, which in itself do non supply a curative, rehabilitative environment that can efficaciously cut down reoffending. Therefore, possibly it is arguable that by increasing the usage of word, this will ease the force per unit area on the prison service and the condemnable justness system as a whole.
The geographic expedition into the benefits and drawbacks of word in general every bit good as in Australia has demonstrated that it is a serious and complex subject. There are many benefits every bit good as drawbacks of the word system and research has shown that word may non needfully turn out to be rehabilitative or effectual in cut downing recidivism. Future research will necessitate to look closely and understand the nature of re-offending of probationers which will assist the condemnable justness system better manage these persons. However there are jobs with transporting out such surveies whereby, for illustration those that may non pique during their word may travel on to offender after at some point in their lives. This is something that would be highly hard to mensurate and therefore we are non in a place to province how effectual word may be in cut downing reoffending in the long term. Indeed it may be more possible to state to what degree persons re-integrate into society by looking at what wrongdoers are making following release, empirical surveies may wish to concentrate on this.
Finally, it must be highlighted that parole offers society, the person and the condemnable justness system a agency of incorporating people back into society, which some may see the function of the condemnable justness system, to reform. If the purpose is to return people back into the community, word is guided manner of accomplishing this. However, the geographic expedition into word has shown that this is a many-sided issue whereby factors such as drugs and even socio-economic factors may hold an impact on the grade to which an person is able to re-integrate. Future research needs to foreground what the chief hazard factors and suggest ways for the condemnable justness system to increase the effectivity of word.