BECOMING AN EFFECTIVE LEADER. BY: Edmund Okiboko LEADERSHIP AND TRUST LEARNING OUTCOMES: At the end of this session, you will be able to: 1. 0- Define a leader 2. 0- Differentiate between managers and leaders. 3. 0- Explain what trait theory is all about. 4. 0- Describe the fiedler contingency model 5. 0- Summarize the path goal model of leadership 6. 0- Explain situational leadership 7. 0- Explain qualities that characterize charismatic leaders 8. 0- Describe the skills of visionary leaders. 9. 0- Roles of effective leaders LEADERSHIP AND TRUST 1. Leadership skills are essential for any aspiring manager. 1. 1 A leader is he/ she who can be able to influence others and who posses managerial authority. 1. 2 Leadership functions: § § § § § Identifying direction Planning Controlling Setting and maintaining standards Giving encouragement LEADERSHIP AND TRUST 1. 2. 1 TASK FUNCTIONS § § § § § § § Defining the task Setting objectives Making a plan Allocating work and resources Controlling quality and tempo of the work Checking performance against plan Adjusting the plan LEADERSHIP AND TRUST 1. 2. 2 INDIVIDUAL FUNCTIONS § § § § § Attending to personal problems Encouraging individuals Giving status Recognizing and using Individual abilities Training the individual LEADERSHIP AND TRUST 1. 2. 3 TEAM FUNCTIONS § § § § § § § § Setting standards Maintaining discipline Building team spirit (esprit de corps) Encouraging and motivating Giving a sense of purpose Appointing sub-leaders Ensuring communication within the group Training the group LEADERSHIP AND TRUST NB. What a leader is, in terms of personality and character, will shape or color the style in which he/she performs the function. LEADERSHIP AND TRUST
Diagrammatically Put: Task Needs Team Needs Individual Needs LEADERSHIP AND TRUST 2. 0 Managers Vs Leaders 2. 1 Writers have a tendency of using the two terms unanimously, whereas the two are two distinct and separate terms. 2. 1. 2 Managers are: § Appointed § Have legitimate power § Have formal authority inherent in their positions. LEADERSHIP AND TRUST 2. 1. 3 Leaders are: § Either elected, appointed or emerge from within a group. § Can influence others to change beyond the actions (dictated by formed authority) § Have followers § NB: NOT ALL LEADERS ARE MANAGERS, NOR ARE ALL MANAGERS LEADERS. . 0 TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP 3. 1 Theories that isolate characteristics that differentiate leaders from non- leaders. 3. 2 Ask the average person on the street what comes to mind when he or she thinks of leadership! 3. 3 Answer: 3. 3. 1 DRIVE: § High level effort § High desire for achievement TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP 3. 3. 1 DRIVE: § § § § Highly ambitious Full of energy Tirelessly persistent in their activities Show initiative 3. 3. 2 DISIRE TO LEAD: § Strongly desire to influence and lead others § Demonstrate willingness to take responsibility TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP 3. . 3 HONESTY AND INTEGRITY § Build trust relations between themselves and the led. § Trustful § Non deceitful § Show consistency between word and deed 3. 3. 4 SELF CONFIDENCE 3. 3. 5 INTELLIGENCE 3. 3. 6 JOB RELEVANT KNOWLEDGE TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP 4. 0 BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP 4. 1 Theories that isolate behaviors that differentiate effective leaders from ineffective leaders. 4. 2 The critical behavioral determinants of leadership. a) We could train people to be leaders (Management Development in UMI) TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP 4. 3 Autocratic style of leadership § § § § Leader who centralizes authority Leader who dictates work methods Leader who makes unilateral decision Leader who limits employee participation He top- bottom based 4. 4 DEMOGRAPHIC STYLE OF LEADERSHIP • Involves employees in decision making TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP § Delegates authority § Encourages participation in deciding work methods and goals § Uses feedback to coach employees 4. 4. 1 A democratic- consultative teacher seeks inputs and hears the concerns and issues of employees but makes the final decision himself/ herself. TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP 4. 4. A democratic- participative leader- often allows employees to have a say in what is decided. -The leader provides an input in the group. 4. 4. 3 LAISSEZ- FAIRE LEADER • Leader who: Currently gives his/ her employees complete freedom to make decisions TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP • To complete their work in whatever way they see it fit. • Might simply provide necessary materials and answer questions. QN: WHICH IS THE BEST LEADERSHIP STYLE OF THE FOUR? 4. 4. 4 DICTATORIAL 5. 0 UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES CAME UP WITH TWO DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS: TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP . 1 Employee oriented: i. e. – A leader who emphasizes interpersonal relations, • takes personal interest in employee needs • accepts individual differences. 5. 2 Production Oriented: A leader who emphasizes the technical or task aspects of a job is concerned mainly with accomplishing tasks, regards group members as a means to accomplishing goals. TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP 5. 3 MANAGERIAL GRID (Robert Blake & Jane Mouton) A two- dimensional view of leadership style that is based on: a) Concern of people b) Concern of production 5. 4 LESSONS WE LEARN FROM BEHAVIORAL THEORIES:
TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP § Was most popular & important attempts to explain leadership in terms of behavior. § Little success in explaining the relationship between leadership and successful performance. § Results varied over different ranges of circumstances. § Consideration of situational factors which influenced either success or failure was found missing. TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP EXAMPLES: § Would Mother Teresa have been a great leader of the poor today? § Would Ralph Nader have risen to lead a consumer activist group had he been born in 1834 rather than 1934? Overall: Behavioral leadership emphasizes training people in knowing when to focus on results and when to take into account a people orientation. TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP 6. 0 CONTINGENCY (SITUATIONAL) LEADERSHIP THEORY. 6. 1 Fiedler Contingency model 6. 1. 1 The theory that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with employees and: The degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the lender. TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP 6. 1. 2 LPC Questionnaire designed by Fiedler to measure whether a person is task or relationship oriented. 6. PATH- GOAL THEORY (Robert House) • Currently one of the most respected approaches to leadership. • It is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and support to ensure that goals are compatible with the over all objectives of the group or organization. TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP § The term “path goal” is derived from the belief that effective leaders classify the path to help their followers get from where they are to the achievement of their work goals and make a journey along the path easier by reducing road blocks and pitfalls. § Robins and Decenzo Pg. 53 AN EMERGING IT LEADERSHIP PARADIGM. § Some people see the leader as a motivator, while others define a leader as one having extra ordinary vision and decision making power. § Leaders are designers, stewards and teachers. They are responsible for building the organizations where people continually expand their capabilities to understand complexity & clarify vision. § According to Dede (1993), the true nature of leadership is exemplified by four attitudes: AN EMERGING IT LEADERSHIP PARADIGM § § § § Envisioning opportunities; Displacing cherished misconceptions; Inspiring others to act on link; Encouraging followers. Leadership is the key dynamic force that motivates and coordinates the organization in the accomplishment of its objectives. AN EMERGING IT LEADERSHIP PARADIGM § White (1997) states that the most effective future leaders will build upon the skills of the past and present. § In order to successfully lead others in the midst of constantly changing environment, leaders need to capitalize on the best strengths of past leaders, while staying flexible to explore unexpected byways, and taking calculated risks. AN EMERGING IT LEADERSHIP PARADIGM The changing nature of work force, one that is increasingly diverse and facing new issues such as: ODownsizing OOutsourcing OKaizen OFlexibility ODeclining corporate loyalty OGreater customer awareness OGreater customer demands AN EMERGING IT LEADERSHIP PARADIGM v Requires a new type of leader- one who can unite a nation lacking confidence and one who is flexible and mindful of the constraints of living in an increasingly borderless environment brought about by advanced telecommunication. v In this IT era, leaders must ensure that innovation is encouraged an creativity is rewarded. AN EMERGING IT LEADERSHIP PARADIGM According to Burns (1978) leadership can be better understood as a political relationship emerging from the “chaotic, reciprocal interaction among people with potential conflicting goals, values and ideas. ” politics is about who gets 5Ws and 1 H. § Today’s leaders should be IT literate! They should then focus on ways that organizational structures and systems, human nature, AN EMERGING IT LEADERSHIP PARADIGM moral order, value development, effects of personal choice and personal similarities and differences have upon ability to effect change. – A well- rounded, skilled and instinctive IT leader will be the result:!
Essential Qualities of the effective 21st Century Leader: • Must be It skilled • Winters (1997) admonishes that organizations are in need of “ Bold, visionary and spirituallygrounded leaders who are prepared for the challenges of the 21st century. Attributes: – Audacity to take a stand on unpopular or unheard of………………….. Essential qualities of the effective 21st century leader. Takes creative position for the well being of his/ her team; Vision; Exhibits the faith and stamina to effect change simply because it is right; Is a model for the rest of the organization i. e. “self achiever” whom every body admires, an innovator and an early adopter of IT. Essential qualities of the effective 21st century leader. § Leaders must be able to cope with the complex PESTELE changes in their organizations. “Specific technology related knowledge is required. ” § Analytical and active listening skills are a must. § According to McAdams (1997) ability to succeed in a rapidly changing world requires cooperation. Organization enrichment of ideas, strong commitment to change- all important skills that the system level leader would do well to adopt. Essential qualities of the effective 21st century leader. You can’t teach what you don’t know, and you can not lead where you will not go! ” Jesse Jackson. Leaders of the 21st century should posses the following characteristics which make them effective leaders in ever changing environment: • Vision A knowledge of the future and how to get there. (Powell, 1996) Essential qualities of the effective 21st century leader. • Integrity Absolute dedication to doing what is right. (Mac Adams, 1997) • Trust Ability to nature the “leader” in others. (Dede, 1993) • Selflessness An idea that their existence is to serve their followers. (NSBA, 1999) Essential qualities of the effective 21st century leader. Commitment Passion as seen through caring , concern and building perpetuation. (Horgan, 1998) – Creativity Seeing the world as a series of opportunities with fewer barriers than possibilities. (White, 1997) Essential qualities of the effective 21st century leader • Open- mindedness Always ready to try new ways of doing things. (Katter, 1993) • Toughness Knowing on their hearts what is needed and demanding that it be done. (Cronin, 1989) • Ability to communicate Keeping a breast with what is going onconnected. (Elgin & LeDrew, 1999) Essential qualities of the effective 21st century leader. Ability to listen Knowing when to keep quiet yet informed. (Alter, 1999) • Calculated risk- taking Open to possibilities, questioning assumptions, and taking a stand. (Capowski, 1994) • Innovative – without fear of failure. (Avant, 1996) Essential qualities of the effective 21st century leader. • Visibility – A sense of community (Fitzgerald, 1996) • Inquisitiveness – Constant questioning and probing of answers. (Taylor, 1993) • Intuition – Possesses view insight and different perspectives. (Benis and Nanus, 1985) • Action- oriented – Willing to do something for the good of the organization. (Kinnaman, 1996)
Essential qualities of the effective 21st century leader. • Candidness – Ability to be forth right yet still have compassion and empathy. (Winters, 1997) • Tenaciousness Inability to give up or let others do so. (Lambert, 1998) • Ability to network A team leader/ builder. (Wunsch, 1992) Essential qualities of the effective 21st century leader. CONCLUSION. By now you must be:• A leader who is a self achiever and motivated to become a proactive leader, a role model and effective leader. • Changes in (PESTELE) often produce a “chaotic situation” where change management/ effective leadership becomes increasingly important.
Essential qualities of the effective 21st century leader. The importance of the 21st century leader can be summed as follows: vComplex events, chaotic developments, trends and uncertainties in our modern world are confronting leaders with a compelling mandate for change of unprecedented proportions. vAnd not just any old change will do… In this world of turbulence and flux, no change short of profound transformation will suffice. Summary of the Importance of the 21st century leader. vIt seems certain that the “New realities” of chaos, complexity and discontinuous change are here to stay. Globalization, fierce competition, the remarkably diverse workforce, the continuing explosion of IT, economic and social upheaval are only a few of a plethora of signals from the market place we must begin to heed. Summary of the importance of the 21st century leader. The message is clear: If survival is the aim, change is the game change not only in how we do work, but in how we think about our work, our enterprises, ourselves and our lives. Summary of the importance of the 21st century leader. – END – Thank you for your participation! Questions and Comments are welcome.