In January 2008 establishments across the European Union every bit good as the US started the execution of the new Basel Capital Accord, normally referred to as Basel II. This new model for bank ordinances is intended for replacing the first Capital Accord implemented in 1988. The Revised Framework on International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards introduced a scope of inventions specifically designed to increase the effectivity of Bank ordinance every bit good as to diminish the likeliness of major bank prostrations, and therefore the fiscal instability associated with such events. Such a policy has really serious deductions for the banking industry every bit good as the fiscal sector as a whole.
Since mid-2007 many economic experts have argued that the new Capital Accord has stimulated every bit good every bit acted as the chief cause for the fiscal crisis which at first occurred in the sub-prime mortgage sector in the US, so distributing to the planetary degree.
After carefully reexamining the bing research on this topic I came to the decision that no consensus has been reached so far sing the consequence that the new Capital Accord had on the fiscal markets. This research therefore aspires to find whether Basel II was so a major cause for the fiscal crisis every bit good as to farther research its effects of its execution on the fiscal markets.
Research Questions and Aims
The overall purpose of this research is to find to what extent was the new Capital Accord responsible for the happening of the planetary fiscal crisis, whether the execution of Basel II acted as a accelerator or on the contrary decreased the consequence of the fiscal convulsion, every bit good as to analyze whether the effects of the execution of the new Capital Accord are so increased stableness, more efficient ordinance model, decreased likeliness of bank prostrations every bit good as an addition in the overall fiscal well-being of the banking industry and fiscal unity of the economic system. The undermentioned inquiries sing the new model for capital adequateness can stipulate the focal point of my research:
What is the function of Basel II in the fiscal crisis?
Can we merely impute the fiscal crisis to Basel II?
Is it right to concentrate on elements of the new Framework that, to a deeper analysis, are non purely linked to the fiscal convulsion?
Should regulators discard the whole Basel II model or, instead, seek to get the better of its bounds while continuing the anchor of the new subject?
What are the general deductions of Basel II execution for the banking industry?
What are the deductions for pecuniary policy and macro-level economic system?
There has been old research conducted sing the execution of Basel II. The literature reviewed provides a thorough probe of the country of research, including the basicss of Basel II and fiscal ordinance, capitalisation jobs, hazards and jobs associated with fiscal ordinance on the macro-economical degree, every bit good as the overview and review of the legal model environing the fiscal ordinance.
Francesco Cannata and Mario Quagliariello ( 2009 ) conducted a survey on the consequence the new Basel II Capital Accord has on the sub-prime fiscal crisis. The intent of the research was to find whether the new capital demands impaired banking efficiency and therefore stimulated the crisis, or whether Basel II did non play a major function in the fiscal convulsion. This researched is greatly supplemented by G.A Lander, etA Al. ( 2008 ) , who in their survey, explore into the job of the subprime mortgage crisis, and specifically, the ways in which the crisis can be contained, every bit good as prevented in the hereafter. The research worker attribute the causes for the subprime crisis to Predatory Borrowing and Subprime Predatory Lending Practices, every bit good as Mortgage Fraud, as the writers call it, every bit good as attempt to place the function of Basel II model in the above events.
Frederic Mishkin ( 2006 ) examines whether too-big-to-fail is every bit serious a job. In his research Mishkin tackles the jobs associated with authorities bail-outs, the moral jeopardy job and inauspicious choice, every bit good as ways in which the regulative establishments can better the state of affairs. Peter Docherty ( 2008 ) in his survey provides a different position on Basel II execution and the fiscal convulsion. He looks at the consequence Basel II would hold on the Federal Governments policies, every bit good as the Central Banks ‘ pecuniary policies and ordinances.
Mario Quagliariello ( 2008 ) conducted a survey which provides a selected reappraisal of a big figure of empirical surveies on the relationship between concern rhythm and bank stableness, both from a micro and an aggregative position. In his research he besides focuses on Basel II execution sing cyclicality. Akhtaruzzaman ( 2009 ) , in bend, focuses his research on the possible jobs Basel II may do for the development states. Akhtaruzzaman is building a pilot theoretical account to mensurate possible impact on capital of Bankss in developing markets. Using the theoretical account, the parallel computations for capital demands are so carried out, taking into consideration Credit Risk, Market Risk every bit good as Operational Risk, under the Standardized/Basic Approaches of Basel II. The two surveies above therefore complement each other, and supply a model for my research.
It is of import to indicate out that all of the surveies presented, although really thorough in their ain country, are limited in some manner or another, therefore leting me to place assorted spreads of cognition in different countries. My primary review of these surveies is deficiency of empirical grounds. However, it is besides of import to advert that some of regulative facets are theoretical, and that much of the fiscal information required for a thorough empirical analysis is non freely available. Therefore, the surveies above helped me explicate the field of my research every bit good as to place clear boundaries, in footings of which countries need farther research, which countries have non been researched at all, and which countries are mostly discussed.
For this survey, quantitative research method will be used to garner the information required for analysis. The method for the survey will be descriptive, sing the fact that a large sum of this research will be theoretical and will in portion be supported by equal empirical patterning depending on its significance.
A questionnaire will be used in order to bring forth sufficient sum of informations sing how bank directors perceive the new Framework, every bit good as to clearly place debatable countries of the new Capital Accord. For this research is concerned with peculiar facets of Basel II execution, this attack seems more equal than qualitative, such as interviews, as it would supply a really steadfast construction to the researched country.
The questionnaire will include inquiries outlined in this research proposal, in order to be able to obtain a “ 2nd sentiment ” on the affair, and will be distributed to legion bank directors, several of whom have already agreed to take part, via electronic mail, which will guarantee higher clip flexibleness for both the research worker, every bit good as the population.
Bank directors being targeted will be determined based on the relevancy of this peculiar bank ‘s capital mass, legal power, range of activities, internal policies, etc. Some of the Bankss in inquiry include AXA bank ( Belgium subdivision ) , VP Bank ( Vaduz, Liechtenstein ) , Barclays Group ( London ) , etc.
Based of the informations gathered from the questionnaire, relevant theoretical accounts will be used to carry on empirical testing of the statements put away ( such as impact on bank capital ) . The theoretical accounts will be constructed in line with recommendations of BCBS 128 publication entitled ‘International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards ‘ . Based on the consequences obtained from those theoretical accounts, equal analysis will be conducted in visible radiation on the demands posed by the new Capital Accord.
The needed informations for empirical mold will be gathered from Bankss ‘ one-year, and inter quartile fiscal studies, every bit good as Cardinal Banks ‘ statements, some of which are publically available and some of which can be obtained through DataStream database.
The consequences from the questionnaire every bit good as empirical mold will non merely reply the inquiries posed by this research, but would besides assist place which countries of Basel II would so necessitate betterment, and which expeditiously serve its intent if complied with.