Banking Mergers And Acquisitions In Emerging Market Economies Finance Essay

Changes in the economic environment and in the concern universe lead towards globalisation. Amalgamations and acquisitions have their part in this new phenomenon. Harmonizing to Altunbas and Ibanez ( 2004 ) , amalgamations are defined as concern combinations where both houses combine their fiscal and human resources to run as one house, intending that two or more companies of about the same size are joined together and the stockholders and managers of the two companies approve the thought of the combination and continue to hold an involvement in the combined concern. In contrast, acquisitions or coup d’etats mean that a big house pays hard currency as a premium to get a smaller house by purchasing all of its assets and liabilities with the old proprietors and selling stockholders abandoning their involvement in the concern.

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Over the past decennary, as in other industries, the banking industry has experienced an unprecedented degree of consolidation as amalgamations and acquisitions among big fiscal establishments have taken topographic point at record degrees. As a consequence, this procedure of consolidation in the banking sector has attracted significant attending from a big figure of research workers, practicians and policy-makers.

2.2. Categorization of Amalgamations and Acquisitions

Amalgamations and acquisitions are fundamentally classified into three types of integrating scheme: horizontal, perpendicular and pudding stone. Horizontal integrating appears when one house acquires another house in the same industry ( same phase of production procedure ) of the geting house. An illustration of a successful horizontal integrating is the 2007 amalgamation between ABN Amro and Barclays PLC. In contrast, perpendicular integrating involves houses at different phases of production. In this instance, providers merge with purchasers or distributers. The 1993 amalgamation between Merck, a pharmaceutical maker, and Medco, a pharmaceutical distributer is an illustration of a successful perpendicular integrating. The last one, which is the pudding stone integrating, involves the combination of houses, which are non related to each other. It can be seen that perpendicular integrating is frequently more complex and hazardous than horizontal 1s. Furthermore, with the addition in M & A ; A activity in footings of international, cross-border M & A ; As have attracted considerable attending. This is a amalgamation or acquisition affecting a foreign house, either the geting or aim company.

2.3. Approachs of Amalgamations and Acquisitions

In footings of methodological analysis, most of the surveies analysing the consequence of bank consolidation on public presentation tend to follow two chief sorts of empirical methods.[ 1 ]

The first attack uses the event survey methodological analysis,[ 2 ]comparing the market values of bidder and mark Bankss before and after the proclamation of the amalgamation. In other words, this attack is to utilize portion monetary value informations to gauge the distribution of additions and losingss to stockholders. Particularly, portion monetary value surveies are based on event survey methodological analysiss that have based on proclamation period returns which focuses on analyzing the cumulative unnatural return in different event periods around the coup d’etat command ( see Fama, Fisher, Jensen and Roll, 1969 ) .

In kernel, Fama et Al. ( 1969 ) argue that accounting informations are undependable and the market ‘s reaction is likely to be a better index of the existent economic effects of the proclaimed trade. Most anterior surveies examine the unnatural returns of acquirers and marks individually, but several documents analyze the entire alteration in stockholder wealth. In such instances, the value-weighted amount of acquirer and mark unnatural returns is the appropriate step of overall additions stemming from amalgamation and acquisition activity. This step quantifies the value creative activity that the market believes the amalgamation will supply. Surveies of the unnatural returns experienced by single amalgamation parties can non distinguish between the consequence on value of consolidation and the consequence of the wealth transportation embodied in the purchase monetary value.

Abnormal return-based methodological analysis, which use market monetary values, has the benefit of non trusting on potentially misdirecting accounting informations. Analyzing unnatural returns during the station amalgamation period, nevertheless, has its ain set of jobs. The reading of the few surveies of unnatural returns that extend into the post-merger period is ill-defined. Observed returns may be attributable to expected bank public presentation or to the existent result which may be unrelated to the amalgamation dealing under probe. Furthermore, event period is besides a large inquiry. Indeed, how many yearss before the proclamation are necessary to capture the consequence of information escape without including excessively much unrelated events? How many yearss after the proclamation are appropriate to enable the market to to the full merchandise on information sing the proposed dealing? As a consequence, consequences may be influenced well by the window selected for analysis.

In the 2nd attack, balance-sheet-based methodological analysiss are used to compare the public presentation of the unifying Bankss with that of a control group.[ 3 ]This attack for measuring the public presentation of houses is by utilizing accounting informations where the accounting step of public presentation is runing public presentation concentrating on profitableness. Evaluation of amalgamations and acquisition based on the analysing accounting informations intended to measure the economic impact of M & A ; As by proving for alterations in the profitableness of the combined house.

The strengths of such balance-sheet-based attack are that accounting public presentation can be straight measured and the informations used are both easy obtained and good understood. The attack is besides reasonably straightforward. Datas from both pre-merger and post-merger informations are used in the analysis and evaluated for grounds of a alteration in the public presentation around the amalgamation activity. It is supported that accounting informations step existent public presentation conditions, non investor outlooks and are hence likely to be slightly more dependable than equity returns. However, surveies of accounting informations have several drawbacks. Although accounting informations are designed to mensurate existent public presentation, they may be inaccurate in an economic sense. Datas are based on historical figures and frequently neglect current market values. In add-on, measured alterations between the pre-merger and post-merger period may non be entirely due to the amalgamation. Other events may hold occurred during the period that is being investigated which may more accurately history for the discernible public presentation alterations. Failing to account for such immaterial events may take to improper decisions sing merger-related alterations.

A 3rd attack has late emerged in the literature which incorporates and extends the two basic methods of analysis. Several documents non merely analyze the relationship between amalgamations activity and both alterations in accounting figures and stock market returns, but besides measure the correlativity between alterations in accounting informations and unnatural returns. In so making, the ability of the market to accurately calculate subsequent public presentation alterations is examined. The drawn-out analysis addresses the inquiry of whether the market is able to distinguish among amalgamations that finally achieve improved public presentation and those that fail to accomplish additions.

2.4. Related Theories of Amalgamations and Acquisitions

2.4.1. Value creative activity theories

The chief motive for most M & A ; As is to prosecute economic addition.[ 4 ]This addition is called synergism. A synergy consequence exists merely if the two houses are “ worth more together than apart ” . Therefore, when uniting complementary resources, the resources of the two houses come together and increase entire value. Although many directors regard synergism as the motivation for their dealing, interactive benefits are hard to be achieved. Such synergisms may ensue from the house ‘s combined ability to work the assorted beginnings of synergism which are classified into four basic classs: Gross sweetening, cost decrease, lower revenue enhancements and lower cost of capital.

* Revenue Enhancement

Harmonizing to Beitel, Patrick, and Schiereck ( 2001 ) , increased grosss can be achieved from marketing additions and market power.

– Selling additions: can be accomplished from the combination of two houses when the two houses together can develop greater operating grosss by sharing selling expertness or accomplishments and doing betterments in bing unsuccessful media programming and advertisement attempts or in a delicate allotment web.

– Market power: Horizontal integratings may besides be motivated by a desire for greater market power. This is attractive to houses as it has been shown that the higher the degree of concentration in an industry the greater is the degree of net incomes. All companies desire to increase their portion of the market, therefore making an chance of being a market leader and monetary value compositor larger.

* Cost Reduction

– Economies of graduated table

Achieving economic systems of graduated table is the natural end of horizontal M & A ; As. With this manner houses achieve cut downing the mean cost while the degree of production additions. Hence, value is created when costs can be spread over a larger figure of end product units.

– Economies of perpendicular integrating

Operating economic systems can be gained in the instance of perpendicular integrating. The chief purpose for such integratings is to derive control over the production procedure by traveling back towards the acquisition of houses that supply the natural stuff, and travel forwards nigher to the ultimate clients. This sort of integrating encourages the successful coordination of similar operating activities.

– Complementary resources

Most of the little houses are acquired by larger houses so that if one house owns what the other demands, with amalgamation companies are more able to market the alone merchandise of the little company, in instance the little company may miss the resources or ingredients to bring forth and market the merchandise on a big graduated table.

– Elimination of inefficient direction

Efficiency betterments can be derived from a alteration in direction. If the directors of the bidders are more talent than the direction of the mark house, value can be increased by heightening the efficiency of the mark through restructuring operations. Jensen and Ruback ( 1983 ) say that acquisitions can originate because of altering engineering or market conditions that need a restructuring of the corporation.

* Cost of capital

With M & A ; As the cost of capital can be reduced because the costs of publishing securities are capable to economic systems of graduated table. The larger the issue of both debt and equity the smaller is the cost.

* Taxs

Harmonizing to Samuels, Wikes, Brayshaw ( 1995 ) , an inducement for an M & A ; As may be revenue enhancement additions. When profitable houses with high revenue enhancements get a house with revenue enhancement losingss, the revenue enhancement losingss can be used to countervail the net incomes of the geting house in order to cut down the entire sum of revenue enhancement that has to be paid. However, Auerbauch and Reishus ( 1988 ) concluded that revenue enhancement considerations likely do non play a important function in motivating companies to unify.

* Diversification

Corporations may M & A ; As as portion of a calculated scheme of variegation whereby companies seek to work new markets and spread their hazard. The amalgamation would equilibrate the house ‘s net incomes and this would be an advantage for stockholders. However, since the stockholders can diversify a portfolio by themselves easier than corporations by merely buying common stock in different corporations, houses that diversify through pudding stone amalgamation are non ever optimal for stockholders.[ 5 ]In add-on, harmonizing to Ravenscraft and Scherer ( 1987 ) domestic acquisitions are related with high bureau costs in monitoring, organizing and incorporating the operations of acquired houses. Although research surveies show that unrelated variegations have a inclination to give hapless consequences, related variegations, amalgamations and acquisitions that take topographic point between two houses in the same line of concern tend to hold more impressive consequences. Markides and Daniel ( 1998 ) , for illustration, supported that “ international acquisitions enable houses to work their firm-specific intangible assets in other states and therefore increase the value of these houses ” .

2.4.2. Redistribution Theories

There are two outstanding theories that have appeared in the literature and explicate why acquisitions do non make value for the geting stockholders ; these being the hubris and the bureau theory.

* Hubris theory

Harmonizing to the hubris hypothesis ( Roll, 1986 ) coup d’etats occur because command directors are infected with hubris, intending that directors are over-confident and hence overvalue their ability to pull off the mark house. Even he argues that the premium paid to the mark is a transportation from the geting house.

Consequently, hubris is the ground directors extremely estimate their ability to pull out acquisition benefits and hence overpay for the mark house. In fact, acquirer directors make this error because the pre-calculation of synergisms from acquisition are excessively high. Furthermore, harmonizing to Roll ‘s hubris hypothesis if additions do n’t be from an acquisition so an mean addition in the mark house ‘s market value should be more than offset by an mean lessening in the geting house ‘s value. The net loss would therefore be consisted of coup d’etat disbursals for the geting house. Last but non least, Jensen and Ruback ( 1983 ) , Asquith ( 1983 ) , Jarrel et Al ( 1988 ) based on Roll ‘s hubris hypothesis indicates that stockholders of the mark houses gain while the geting house ‘s stockholders do non derive.

* Agency theory

The separation of ownership ( stockholders ) and direction brings a major job for the corporation. The directors ( agents ) tend to endeavor for ends that are sometimes inconsistent with the stockholders ‘ ( principals ) ends or desires. Such struggles between stockholders ‘ and directors ‘ aims create the bureau job. The cost to the stockholders of such behaviour is called the bureau cost and represents loss of value to the stockholders. Directors may move in neglect of their principals ‘ involvement in order to advance their ain opportunism. In the M & A ; As context, such self-interest chase may ensue in bad M & A ; As and loss of stockholder value.[ 6 ]

2.5. Academic Arguments on Amalgamations and Acquisitions in banking sector

Amalgamations and acquisitions have been profoundly studied by theoretical and empirical literature, look intoing the grounds and the effects of such operations. Indeed, M & A ; As have provoked argument in the academic sector on the justification of amalgamations and acquisitions in market economic systems. For a better apprehension, it is necessary to analyze the literature reappraisal of M & A ; As.

Many anterior surveies consequences in M & A ; As overall benefits to stockholders when the amalgamate post-merger house is more valuable than the simple amount of the two separate pre-merger houses. Steven et Al ( 1996 ) support that the primary cause of this addition in value is the public presentation betterment following the amalgamation. They found that M & A ; As bring efficiency betterments, increased market power, or heightened variegation.[ 7 ]

The empirical probe carried out by Steven et Al ( 1996 ) besides indicates that consolidation enables costs to be lowered if graduated table or range economic systems can be achieved. Larger establishments may be more efficient if excess installations and forces are eliminated within the post-merger organisation. Furthermore, costs may be lowered if one bank can offer several merchandises at a lower cost than separate Bankss each supplying single merchandises. Cost efficiency may besides be improved through amalgamation activity if the direction of the geting establishment is more skilled at keeping down disbursals for any degree of activity than that of the mark.

Merger-related additions may besides stem from increased market power. Deals among Bankss with significant geographic convergence cut down the figure of houses in markets in which both organisations compete. A related consequence of in-market amalgamations is that the market portion of the lasting organisation in these markets is raised. These alterations in market construction make the affected markets more vulnerable to reduced competition. The increased market power of the lasting organisation may enable it to gain higher net incomes by raising loan rates and take downing sedimentation rates.

Finally, amalgamations may heighten value by raising the degree of bank variegation. Consolidation may increase variegation by either broadening the geographic range of an establishment or increasing the comprehensiveness of the merchandises and services offered. Furthermore, the simple add-on of freshly acquired assets and sedimentations facilitates variegation by increasing the figure of bank clients.

Furthermore, Rhoades ( 1987 ) , ( 1990 ) , ( 1993 ) and Akhavein, Berger, and Humphrey ( 1997 ) analyze alterations in profitableness experienced and happen that banking organisations significantly improved their net income efficiency ranking after amalgamations.[ 8 ]

Recently, several documents incorporate both attacks in the literature and happen that profitableness, as measured by hard currency flow returns on the market value of assets, improved significantly after the amalgamation.[ 9 ]

Interestingly, there is besides some surveies concentrating on motivations and non-economic grounds alternatively of macroeconomic and microeconomic grounds, such as deregulating and economic systems of graduated table for bank M & A ; As. For case, the survey carried out by Lausberg and Stahl ( 2006 ) explain that one manner to depict the importance of non-economic grounds is that directors act as agents for the company or the proprietors, but besides prosecute their ain involvements, particularly if there is a deficiency of control. They show that for bank amalgamations, four selected personal motivations ( power, accomplishment, prestigiousness, and esthesis seeking ) demand to concern on amalgamation determinations.

Unfortunately, the existent value creative activity ensuing from an M & A ; A trade is still an on-going argument ; this controversial issue has chiefly been studied in the empirical literature utilizing two distinguishable attacks: the first 1 is based on fiscal public presentations of houses utilizing accounting informations ( FP attack ) , while the 2nd one applies the event-study methodological analysis.

The old empirical grounds suggests that M & A ; A operations in the US banking industry have non had a positive influence on public presentation ( DeLong and Deyoung, 2007 ; Amel, et al. , 2004 ; Berger, Demsetz, and Strahan, 1999 ) . Particularly, Linder and Crane ( 1992 ) based on aggregating acquirer and mark informations before the amalgamation and compare it to public presentation one and two old ages after consolidation, find that amalgamations did non ensue in improved operating income.[ 10 ]In other words, the decision is that bank amalgamations do non make value. Piloff and Santomero ( 1998 ) refer such disadvantages to managerial hubris.

Similarity, Beccalli and Frantz ( 2006 ) investigates whether M & A ; A operations influence the public presentation of Bankss through utilizing a sample of 714 trades affecting EU acquirers and marks located throughout the universe over the period 1991-2005, happen that M & A ; A operations are associated to a little impairment in return on equity, hard currency flow return and net income efficiency and contemporaneously to a pronounced betterment in cost efficiency. Hence, they summarise that these alterations in ( cost and net income ) efficiency are straight determined by the M & A ; A operations, and would non hold occurred in the absence of any M & A ; A operation. Furthermore, these alterations exhibit a peculiarly negative tendency for cross-border trades to attest the importance of geographical relatedness in order to accomplish better post-M & A ; A public presentation.[ 11 ]

More of import, there is a besides an extended literature on the direction opposition to coup d’etat. Baron ( 1983 ) and Schwert ( 2000 ) show that if the end of the mark house from taking a hostile stance to coup d’etat is to dicker for a better offer, this can take to a higher premium paid to aim stockholders. For cross-border M & A ; As, Amihud, DeLong, and Saunders ( 2003 ) find that there is no decrease in hazard for those Bankss that diversify geographically by geting fiscal establishments abroad.

In decision, whether or non bank amalgamations really achieve the expected public presentation additions is the critical inquiry. If consolidation does, in fact, lead to value additions, so stockholder wealth can be increased. On the other manus, if consolidating entities does non take to the promised positive effects, so amalgamations may take to a less profitable and valuable banking industry.

2.6. Experiences of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions in Key Emerging Economies

The banking industry worldwide is being transformed, particularly under the alterations of planetary forces, including technological invention, the deregulating of fiscal services at the national degree and opening-up to international competition. As with the developed states, the banking systems of many emerging economic systems are fragmented in footings of the figure and size of establishments, ownership forms, profitableness and fight of Bankss, usage of modern engineering, and other structural characteristics.

Harmonizing to John Hawkins and Dubravko Mihaljek ( 2001 ) , few commercial Bankss, even larger 1s in such economic systems, are listed on a stock exchange. They find that profitableness varies widely, with some Bankss gaining high returns but runing really inefficiently, and other Bankss viing ferociously for a narrow section of the market. Similarly, while some commercial Bankss are at the cutting border of engineering and fiscal invention, many are still fighting with the basic operations such as recognition hazard appraisal and liquidness direction. Consequently, recent banking crises have weakened banking systems in a figure of states, and therefore, it is ineluctable to see bank amalgamations as a possible vehicle for bettering the construction and efficiency of the banking industry. Support of M & A ; As assert that consolidation will bring forth efficiency betterments and increase fight. Larger Bankss besides want to be larger because of the belief that the authorities will non allow big Bankss to neglect as it could take to panic.

The M & A ; As markets in Asia, for illustration, have become progressively of import as its portion in the figure of world-wide minutess increased from 8.5 % , in 1995, to 17.7 % in 2008. The entire value of the M & A ; As minutess besides increased from 13.3 % to 20.0 % during the period ( Kummer, 2009 ) . This indicates the function of M & A ; A in the fiscal economic sciences literature of the regional economic system.

In Hong Kong and Singapore, bank M & A ; As are chiefly concerned ensuing from a survival challenge: how to advance development of major domestic fiscal establishments whose long-run involvements are aligned with the local economic system, and that are at the same clip able to vie on a broad regional footing with the best international Bankss? As John Hawkins and Dubravko Mihaljek ( 2001 ) mentioned, the challenge does non come from the viability of local Bankss, but from the construction of ownership in the domestic banking sector. Most local Bankss in Hong Kong and Singapore started as household Bankss and are still run by their commanding stockholders, and hence, it is hard to vie with the best international Bankss in footings of size, engineering, expertness, scope and quality of service, and stockholders returns. As a consequence of such jobs, the local Bankss are quickly motivated to beef up themselves by set uping banking groups to vie with international immense Bankss.

Besides Hong Kong and Singapore, the governments in Korea have besides advocated bank M & A ; As on the evidences that domestic Bankss had to be big plenty to vie efficaciously with foreign Bankss, particularly in the domestic market given the size of the Korean economic system.

Ramlee and Said ( 2009 ) on tendencies and patterns in Malayan fiscal industries provides for some utile penetrations, and more significantly may be comparable to the recent M & A ; A tendency in Vietnam ‘s fiscal sector, including noticeable cross-border minutess. They present that globalisation, fiscal deregulatings, progresss in engineering, cost nest eggs, and desire for geting larger market portions, are forces motivating commercial consolidations taking the signifier of M & A ; As. Similarity, the empirical survey presented by Allen and Boobal-Batchelor ( 2005 ) besides find the function of post-crisis bank M & A ; As in heightening efficiency additions and benefits to the populace in Malaysia.

Castillo ( 2009 ) based on concentrating on large-scaled bank M & A ; As, finds that the Philippines ‘ M & A ; As activities are capable to significant ordinances. It concludes that Bankss consider M & A ; As as a method to better their fiscal places and fight. However, his survey besides notices that M & A ; As could ensue in an oligopoly construction, making jobs for the Philippines economic system and society. Therefore, socio-economic impacts of M & A ; As could be double-faced.

Using the multiple-case research method, Deng ( 2008 ) provides with grounds the world and logical thinking of more Chinese houses choosing cross-border M & A ; As as a agency to entree and beginning strategic assets, turn toing their ain competitory disadvantages, from an institutional position.

The addition of M & A ; A activity in the crisis-afflicted economic systems has been driven besides by exchange rate depreciation and lower domestic plus monetary values, which provided foreign investors with greater range for geting assets. Meanwhile policy models toward foreign entry have been liberalized in those economic systems. Within developing states, Latin America has been the largest mark part of cross-border M & A ; A, most of which have been through denationalization plans. Harmonizing to Focarelli and Pozzolo ( 2005 ) , although there is small grounds to propose that cross-border M & A ; As have made immediate parts to restructuring of the troubled economic systems, the most important function for cross-border M & A ; As prevarications in longer term reconstituting procedures such as operational restructuring and more productive re-allocation of physical and fiscal resources in emerging economic systems.

In general, the policy of promoting or coercing bank M & A ; As in many emerging economic systems, particularly Asiatic states comes from two positions widely: ( 1 ) meeting two Bankss creates a bank healthier than both predecessor Bankss ; and ( 2 ) unifying a weak bank with a healthier one reduces the opportunity of a bank failure. However, as mentioned above, it is indispensable for such economic systems to build-up the proper legal-frames, avoiding monopolistic construction and related jobs for the economic system and society.[ 12 ]

3. Aim

Since mid-1990s, Vietnam has been emerging as a new market economic system. It has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asiatic Nations ( ASEAN ) since 1995, so the World Trade Organization ( WTO ) since 2007. These consequence in many alterations in economic construction and direction. The most convincing grounds lies in banking sector. In fact, Vietnam ‘s banking system is besides pieced in footings of the figure and size of establishments, ownership forms, profitableness and fight of Bankss, usage of modern engineering, and other structural characteristics. In other words, the rapid alterations in the economic system such as deregulating and liberalisation of governmental organisations, the constitution of the stock exchange, the come ining into ASEAN and WTO, has forced Vietnamese commercial Bankss to alter. Many directors have realized that in order to be able to vie they would necessitate the appropriate tools and the power that secures the competitory border. Amalgamations and Acquisitions ( M & A ; As ) should be considered as one of the critical schemes to reenforce Vietnam ‘s domestic commercial Bankss fight.

In footings of academic research, the scrutiny of bank M & A ; As for emerging economic systems has attracted considerable attending in legion anterior surveies. However, there has been about no professional empirical probe has emerged concentrating chiefly on Vietnam M & A ; As market, particularly bank M & A ; As in the market of over 86 million, and hence, it is believed that this does non reflect a full image of alterations in the Vietnam singular economic development since establishing the plan of “ Doi Moi ” in 1986.

On the footing of grounds on assorted motivations for bank M & A ; As, the intent of this undertaking can be divided into peculiar facets as followers:

– To look into whether the impact of bank M & A ; As on heightening Vietnamese bank fight, accomplishing graduated table and range economic systems, cut downing costs every bit good as upgrading their hazard direction systems ;

– To place the features and tendencies in M & A ; As activity in Vietnam ‘ banking industry, and examine whether they are in line with that found in the cardinal emerging markets trusting on anterior empirical surveies ;

– To determine the way of economic and fiscal policy research and the insistence of building-up related legal-frames, forestalling unexpected affects resulted from M & A ; As activities ;

– To offer new penetrations for the literature country.


First, the Vietnamese banking system has been undergoing major alterations that have affected both its construction and the nature of strategic interaction among banking establishments over the past several old ages. It is observed that the banking industry is traveling from traditional savings-cum-lending maps to other services every bit good such as bank-assurance and securities trading. In recent times, Vietnamese domestic Bankss have besides diversified their activities to cover a broad scope of activities. They arrange remittal of financess from one topographic point to another, they act as agent of their clients in certain activities like payment of subscription, and they besides act as sureties for their clients. Different schemes have been adopted to undertake the demands of this new operating environment, one such scheme holding been consolidation via M & A ; As. The Government and the State Bank of Vietnam are in favor of this alteration and accordingly arises a desire to analyze this facet in item.

Second, recent international banking crises have weakened banking systems in both developed and developing states, and therefore, it is ineluctable to see bank M & A ; As as a possible vehicle for bettering the construction and efficiency of the banking industry. Particularly, M & A ; As involves the value creative activity and hazard direction. Through M & A ; As activities, geting Bankss could be market enlargement, comparative advantages of lower labour costs, less dearly-won entree to natural and societal resources. On the other manus, acquired 1s may comprehend chances otherwise, such as in modern direction engineerings, diversified plus portfolio, capital addition utilizing spouses ‘ repute, or non uncommonly merely much larger returns from gross revenues of bing assets, touchable or intangible. In other words, amalgamations and acquisitions or restructuring may besides assist Vietnamese domestic Bankss improve in three countries as listed below:

Economies of Scale: An acquirer would hold the capablenesss to better the aggregations, service procedures, distribution, substructure and IT of the mark bank.

Economies of Scope: An ability to turn merchandises and sections and an chance to traverse sell would heighten gross.

Synergy Benefits: Treasury public presentation would be improved as the cost of financess would cut down ( hence, better spread ) as it would hold a better recognition evaluation. A bank would besides be able to leverage graduated table and better its trading income.

Furthermore, a chronic disease in about emerging economic systems is deficit of capital, Vietnam is non exceeding. Even with the being of Vietnam Stock Market over the past 10 old ages, the state of affairs has non changed significantly, due to low liquidness of the market, and the structural issue of the Vietnamese economic system remains in favour of bank recognition and other type of finance than new-issued equity. Consequently, it is of course to oppugn the function and insistence of M & A ; As in fiscal establishments whose recognition contribute chiefly to the addition in Vietnam ‘ GDP.

An extra significance is contribute to the way of macro-economic and fiscal policy research, the basicss of single and institutional determination devising, forestalling unexpected affects resulted from M & A ; As activities, lending to the stableness of Vietnam ‘s banking system in peculiar and Vietnam ‘s economic development in the long-run by and large.

Consequences of the proposed undertaking can be perchance applicable non merely to Vietnam ‘ fiscal services industry, but besides being valuable mentions to other sectors in theVietnam economic system.


Auxiliary inquiries


1. What is M & A ; A, its virtues and failings, related theories and unfavorable judgment?

What are M & A ; A categorizations?

Specify the most apprehensible construct, related theories and discuss in argument M & A ; A-related unfavorable judgment.

Review in item bing M & A ; A categorizations.

2. Which methodological analysiss are normally employed to look into the impact of M & A ; A activities?

Reappraisal at length three common accepted attacks, including the event survey, balance-sheet based and assorted methodological analysis.

3. What are features of M & A ; A activities in cardinal emerging markets, peculiarly Southeasterly Asia markets?

Based on anterior empirical surveies, bespeaking features of M & A ; A activities in cardinal emerging markets, chiefly Southeast Asia markets?

4. What are recent big alterations in footings of country-specific political, societal, and economic conditions act uponing M & A ; As in Southeast Asia economic systems?

Discuss events happened over the research period which are likely to consequence the M & A ; As in such equity markets.

5. What are demands, insistence, and motives of M & A ; As in the Vietnamese banking sector?

Discuss deeply the function of the M & A ; A activities for Vietnamese banking industry development in peculiar and for Vietnam sustainable development in general.

6. Whether the M & A ; A activities in Vietnamese banking sector are in line with that found in the cardinal emerging markets by anterior empirical surveies?

Based on the anterior surveies combined with gathered empirical informations, reexamining the M & A ; As in Vietnamese banking industry.

7. Which should research methodological analysiss be employed in the undertaking and related available tools to implement the survey?

Give a full model of methodological analysiss selected every bit good as econometric packages applied in the probe.


In order to accomplish the aims, the undertaking will be implemented based on integrating two common accepted attacks in analyzing Amalgamations and Acquisitions, including the event survey type methodological analysis, and balance-sheet based methodological analysis ( comparing of pre- and post-merger public presentation ) . Particularly:

– The undertaking first uses the event survey methodological analysis to comparing the market values of bidder and mark Bankss before and after the proclamation of the amalgamation. This means that we would utilize portion monetary value informations to gauge the distribution of additions and losingss to stockholders in different event periods around the coup d’etat command. In other words, the undertaking tries to determine whether the proclamation of the bank M & A ; As creates stockholder value ( usually in the signifier of cumulated unnatural stock market returns ) for the mark, the bidder and the combined entity stockholders.

– The balance-sheet-based methodological analysis will besides be used to measuring the public presentation of combined Bankss by utilizing accounting informations where the accounting step concentrating on alterations in the profitableness. Consequently, the survey would compare:

Performance values for mark and acquirer in the pre-M & A ; A period ;

Performance values for Bankss involved in M & A ; A operations and Bankss non involved in any M & A ; A operations ;

Performance for the combined bank ensuing after the M & A ; A trade and leaden norm of the public presentation of the mark and acquirer prior to the M & A ; A trade ( with entire assets as weights ) . This provides a step of the alteration in public presentation.

– Finally, the survey would integrate and extends the two basic methods of analysis above. This means that the undertaking non merely analyzes the relationship between M & A ; As activities and both alterations in accounting figures and stock market returns, but besides measure the correlativity between alterations in accounting informations and unnatural returns.

Research Data

Datas used in the survey can be significantly divided into two common types: primary and secondary informations.

– In term of secondary informations ( Historical Experimental Research ) , the sample population comprises Bankss M & A ; As trades, including between Vietnamese domestic Bankss each other, and between one or more Vietnamese domestic bank ( s ) and one foreign bank. The probe covers a clip period between 1990 and 2010 to capture the rapid alterations within the Vietnamese banking industry following two planetary fiscal crises over the past decennaries, the 1997-98 crisis and the 2007-09 1.

The information will be obtained from the single commercial bank ‘s audited one-year studies every bit good as from public media analysis, where some inside informations of M & A ; A dealing are unveiled at times, from stock exchanges and on occasion, separate studies by the fiscal sector.

– For primary informations, a proper-scale fieldwork will be employed to roll up such a primary information. Consequently, the survey is planned to carry on in-depth interviews with bank directors of some successful bank M & A ; As trades in Vietnam. The data-collection instruments will be used in the procedure of face-to-face interview are voice recording equipment, and inquiry usher.


This subdivision describes the chief fieldwork processs and study design features. In order to accomplish high informations quality, the professional qualitative study will be conducted based on interviews with bank directors of some successful bank M & A ; As trades in Vietnam over the past two decennaries.

One of the chief ground for utilizing the qualitative research ( via professor questioning method ) is that this method is comparatively appropriate since unprompted remarks are produced, every bit good as new thoughts are drawn out. These remarks, in bend, will be priceless mentions to sum up experiences and suggest the way of related policy. Purposes of such a fieldwork are to use and incorporate academic cognition with pattern, analyzing benefits and jobs related to M & A ; A trades.

The methodological analysis of the fieldwork is well based on the deductive attack. The nature of this method is from the more general to the more specific. Consequently, the fieldwork will get down with M & A ; As-related theories, and so contract them down into more specific hypotheses. These hypotheses will finally be tested based on specific informations to corroborate or disprove the original theory.


– Year one: Perusal related and indispensable classs recommended by supervisors.

– Year two + three: Discussion of literature reappraisal to polish research inquiries. Flying of tools to be used, development of research methodological analysiss and techniques. Followed by analyzing and analyzing gathered empirical informations, and so supplementing literature reappraisal. Furthermore, the fieldwork will be conducted within this phase. It can be expected that the length of fieldwork is about 12 hebdomads within the 3rd research twelvemonth.

– Year four: Complete composing up.




Asso.Prof. Dr Anh Thuy Vo Thi

Senior Lecturer, Department of Finance and Banking

Danang University of Economics

The University of Danang

Attention deficit disorder: 71 Ngu Hanh Son St, Ngu Hanh Son Dist, Danang metropolis, Vietnam


the survey is intended to carry on in-depth interviews with bank directors of some successful bank M & A ; As trades in Vietnam. The data-collection instruments will be used in the procedure of face-to-face interview are voice recording equipment, and inquiry usher. Therefore, it is expected to return to Vietnam for several months within research agenda to make such a fieldwork as portion of my plan.

As mentioned above, Purposes of such a fieldwork are to use and incorporate academic cognition with pattern, analyzing benefits and jobs related to M & A ; A trades. Consequently, the fieldwork will get down with M & A ; As-related theories, and so contract them down into more specific hypotheses. The hypotheses needed to be tested can be:

– Motivations and demands of M & A ; As in the Vietnamese banking sector are in line with that found in the cardinal emerging markets by anterior empirical surveies.

– Meter & A ; As bring efficiency betterments, increased market power, and more significantly the sweetening of Vietnamese bank fight.

– There are the hubris and bureau jobs in bank M & A ; As activities in Vietnam.

On the footing of analyzing primary and secondary informations, these hypotheses will finally be examined to corroborate or disprove the original theory.


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