Australias Major Resources And Energy Exports Economics Essay

Australia is a net energy exporter, with net energy exports stand foring 68 per cent of entire energy production. However, Australia is a net importer of rough oil and refined crude oil merchandises. Coal is Australia ‘s largest energy export earner, with a value of around $ 44 billion in 2010-11, followed by petroleum oil and liquefied natural gas ( LNG ) . Energy exports accounted for 33 per cent of the value of Australia ‘s entire trade good exports in 2010-11.

Since 1988-89, the value of Australia ‘s energy exports ( in 2010-11 Australian dollars ) has increased at an mean rate of 8 per cent a twelvemonth. In 2010-11, energy export net incomes increased by 21 per cent, mostly as a consequence of higher monetary values for coal and LNG. The coal monetary value additions reflected strong demand, and supply breaks in cardinal bring forthing parts including Australia, Indonesia and South Africa.

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Figure 2: Australia ‘s major resources and energy exports, 2010-11

Value and ranking of Australia ‘s major resources and energy exports in 2010-11.

Beginning: BREE 2011, Resources and Energy Statistics.

Figure 3: Australia ‘s energy exports

Net incomes from Australia ‘s energy exports by energy type, 1980-81 to 2010-11.

One of the earliest exports was wool, from which the look ‘Australia siting on the sheep ‘s dorsum ‘ was born. Today, a more diverse export industry has grown integrating fabrication merchandises, services such as instruction and touristry, and high quality nutrient and vino

In 2007, Australia ‘s largest export markets were Japan, China, the United States, Republic of Korea and New Zealand.

Australia ‘s exports of goods and services grew by 3.8 per cent to $ 218 billion in 2007, approximately 20 per cent of Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) . On norm, Australia ‘s exports have grown by 8.7 per cent per annum over the past five old ages.

While Australia ‘s largest export sector is minerals and fuels, fabrication is besides a major portion of the economic system. Advanced manufactured points accounted for around 60 % of Australia ‘s entire manufactured exports. Many of the companies bring forthing these goods are integrated into planetary supply ironss, one of the cardinal fabrication tendencies of the new millenary.

The Australian Trade Commission ( Austrade ) is the Australian Government ‘s international trade publicity and facilitation bureau. Austrade assists international purchasers of goods and services to develop trade connexions with Australia and aids Australian concerns to increase their exports. Austrade besides helps companies to cut down the clip, cost and hazard involved in making concern internationally. Austrade is represented in Australia and in more than 140 abroad locations in over 60 states.

Australia welcomes foreign investing. It recognises the of import function foreign investing dramas in hiking economic growing, developing competitory industries, making occupations and increasing exports. The stock of foreign investing in Australia at 31 December 2007 totalled $ 1.6 trillion.

Similarly, investing offshore is critical to the development of regional and international selling schemes of Australian houses and enables entree to planetary concern webs. The stock of Australian investing abroad was deserving $ 884 billion.

Victoria produced more than tierce of the universe ‘s gold. Between 1852 and 1870, gold ‘s export value was greater than that of wool. Most Australian gold was exported to Britain, which used it to keep a gilded criterion for the lb.

Imports: In 2004 Australia imported US $ 110.0 billion of ware. The largest imports were passenger motor vehicles ( 7.9 per centum ) , crude crude oil ( 5.9 per centum ) , computing machines ( 3.9 per centum ) , medical specialty ( 3.8 per centum ) , and telecommunications equipment ( 3.5 per centum ) . The chief import spouses were the United States ( 14.5 per centum ) , China ( 12.7 per centum ) , Japan ( 11.8 per centum ) , Germany ( 5.8 per centum ) , and Singapore ( 4.4 per centum ) .

Exports: In 2004 Australia exported US $ 91.7 billion of ware. The largest exports were coal ( 11.4 per centum ) , Fe ore ( 5.2 per centum ) , non-monetary gold ( 4.8 per centum ) , crude crude oil ( 4.2 per centum ) , and bovid meat ( 3.9 per centum ) . The chief export spouses were Japan ( 18.9 per centum ) , China ( 9.3 per centum ) , the United States ( 8.1 per centum ) , South Korea ( 7.8 per centum ) , and New Zealand ( 7.4 per centum ) .

Trade Balance: In 2004 Australia posted a ware trade shortage of US $ 18.3 billion.

Balance of Payments: In 2004 Australia ‘s current history balance was negative US $ 39.6 billion, stand foring 6.4 per centum of gross domestic merchandise. The current history shortage was offset by a similar excess in the capital and fiscal history. In peculiar, the influx of portfolio investing was remarkably high. In general, inward direct and portfolio investings are needed to finance Australia ‘s chronic current history shortage.

External Debt: In 2003 Australia ‘s external debt was US $ 237.9 billion, stand foring 30 per centum of gross domestic merchandise.

Foreign Investing: In 2004 foreign direct investing totaled US $ 57 billion, merely somewhat less than China ‘s US $ 60 billion. This unusual accomplishment was attributable in portion to investor involvement in Australia ‘s mineral resources. However, Australia besides attracted foreign investing because of the state ‘s transparent and observant authorities establishments and strong services sector. As of year-end 2004, cumulative foreign investing in Australia totaled US $ 888.6 billion versus Australian investing abroad of US $ 460.8 billion.

Foreign Aid: In the 12 months stoping in mid-2005, Australia contributed US $ 1.6 billion of official development aid ( ODA ) , stand foring about 0.25 per centum of gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) , somewhat higher than the donor norm. Typically, the largest receiver of ODA is Papua New Guinea, a badly developing state that receives fifth part of the entire sum. However, in January 2005 Australia announced a US $ 770 million tsunami assistance package-divided every bit into grants and loans-for Indonesia. The duplicate ends of the ODA plan are poverty decrease and regional stableness, which the authorities holds to be closely related. The primary assistance classs are administration ( 20 per centum ) , instruction ( 16 per centum ) , wellness ( 13 per centum ) , substructure ( 13 per centum ) , and other ( 24 per centum ) .

Currency and Exchange Rate: Australia ‘s currency is the Australian dollar ( AUD ) . The exchange rate as of September 1, 2005, was US $ 1=AUD1.33. The Australian dollar, which has floated since 1983, is the universe ‘s 7th most traded currency.

Fiscal Year: Australia ‘s financial twelvemonth runs from July 1 to June 30.

Major Exports & A ; Imports

Australia has a really good trading industry with manufactured merchandises, metals, minerals, coal and beef as some of the state ‘s chief exports. As Australia is really self sufficient with basic life demands, the state ‘s chief imports consist of machinery, transit and telecommunications equipment, computing machines and office machines.

Major Export 2007

Coal, gold, meat, wool, Fe ore, aluminum oxide, wheat, machinery and conveyance equipment.

Major Imports 2007

Machinery and conveyance equipment, computing machines and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts, petroleum oil and crude oil merchandises.


Japan 19.6 %

China 12.3 %

South Korea 7.5 %

US 6.2 %

India 5.5 %

New Zealand 5.5 %

UK 5 %


China 14.4 %

US 14.1 %

Japan 9.6 %

Singapore 6 %

Germany 5.1 %

Australia is a major exporter of agricultural merchandises, peculiarly wheat and wool, minerals such as iron-ore and gold, and energy in the signifiers of melted natural gas and coal. Although agribusiness and natural resources history for merely 3 per cent and 5 per cent of GDP severally, they contribute well to export public presentation. Australia ‘s largest export markets are Japan, China, the US, South Korea, and New Zealand. Australia is the universe ‘s 4th largest exporter of vino, in an industry lending $ 5.5 billion per annum to the state ‘s economic system.

Australia was ranked 19th for both imports and exports in the universe in 2010. As a member of legion administrations such as APEC, the G20, WTO and OECD, Australia has multiple free trade understandings with legion states such as the US, Singapore, Chile and Thailand.

The most noteworthy free trade understanding though has been the Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement ( ANZCERTA ) . Enforced in 1983, the ANZCERTA built on the 1965 New Zealand Australia Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA, non to be mistaken for the NorthAmerican Free Trade Agreement ) . The ANZCERTA has greatly integrated both economic systems andthere are now plans to make a individual Australasian economic market by 2015.

However, Australia ‘s recent economic advancement has been to a great extent reliant on trade with China. In 2009, China became Australia ‘s largest export market, exceling Japan.

Resources continue to underpin Australia ‘s exports to China. Australia exported 266.2 million metric tons of Fe oreto China in 2009, an addition of 45.2 per cent over the same period.

China is besides Australia ‘s largest beginning of imports. Major imports from China include vesture, communications equipment, computing machines, baby buggies, playthings, games and featuring goods, furniture and telecastings.

The huge graduated table of trade with China has besides seen monolithic investings by Chinese companies in Australia. The bulk of these investings has been in the resources sector, where Chinese companies have non merely invested in Australian excavation companies, but have now besides started to rent land from the Australian authorities to mine resources on their ain.

Australia ‘s Import and Export Indexs and Statisticss at a Glance ( 2010 )

Entire value of exports: US $ 210.7 billion

Primary exports – trade goods: coal, Fe ore, gold, meat, wool, aluminum oxide, wheat, machinery andtransport equipment

Primary exports spouses: China ( 21.81 per centum ) , Japan ( 19.19 per centum ) , South Korea ( 7.88 per centum ) , India ( 7.51 per centum ) , US ( 4.95 per centum ) , UK ( 4.37 per centum ) , NZ ( 4.1 per centum )

Entire value of imports: US $ 200.4 billion

Primary imports – trade goods: machinery and conveyance equipment, computing machines and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts ; crude oil and crude oil merchandises

Primary imports spouses: China ( 17.94 per centum ) , US ( 11.26 per centum ) , Japan ( 8.36 per centum ) , Thailand ( 5.81 per centum ) , Singapore ( 5.54 per centum ) , Germany ( 5.3 per centum )

Read more about Australia ‘s economic system, including industry information and prognosiss on EconomyWatch below.

Australia ‘s population is still spread outing, with people coming from all parts of the universe, and many more things are grown here than of all time before. While much of what we grow is consumed by Australians, some of it is exported. For illustration, rice is grown for the Asiatic market, fruit like oranges is grown and sold to the American market, and wheat is sold all over the universe. Milk and dairy merchandises are exported, every bit good as fruit and veggies, oils and fats, seafoods, plus many more – all are grown today in Australia.

Our state has one of the largest fishing zones in the universe, covering 14 million square kilometers, about twice the country of Australia ‘s land mass ( Beginning: Australian Government, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation ) and widening 200 maritime stat mis out to sea. The fish that are caught in Australian Waterss are sold to states all over the universe, every bit good as all throughout Australia, because of their high quality. The four major abroad states purchasing Australian piscaries produce are Japan, Hong Kong, USA and Chinese Taipei. These four states accounted for 86 % of entire Australian seafood exports in 2008-09.

Did you know that giant perch, which are largely farmed in Queensland, start life as males and terminal as females, and they can populate in both fresh H2O and salt H2O?

The top three exports are lobster, pearls and ear-shell. Australia sells around $ 367 million worth of pearls each twelvemonth.

The piscaries of Australia are non merely of import because of the export value of the fish they catch ; the industry itself besides employs many people, doing it of import non merely to the economic system but to communities as good.

What do we import ( convey in ) from other states?

Even though Australia has so many natural resources, there are still some things that can non be found here and necessitate to be bought from other states.

Most of Australia ‘s large imports are non primary industry merchandises, merely because we can bring forth so many of those ourselves. Manufactured merchandises like autos or computing machine parts are normally bought from overseas because it ‘s frequently cheaper to do them elsewhere.

However, one primary industry merchandise that we do hold to import is rough oil for gasoline and Diesel. Petrol and Diesel are really of import to the economic system, because without it the trucks and autos in Australia would discontinue to travel. This would halt the conveyance of nutrient from farms to metropoliss, and anything else that involved conveyance by a motor vehicle.

Oil and gas sedimentations wo n’t last everlastingly. For long-run sustainability, gasoline options such as biofuels and new methods of powering vehicles are under development.

How you feel about importing primary industry merchandises is really much a personal position. Some people believe we should import more of our nutrient and fibers ; while others feel Australia should be self-sufficing. Whatever your position, it ‘s of import to see the impact the industry has on its local environment, economic system and people.

What do we export ( sell ) to other states?

Australia produces and exports an highly big sum of resources for the figure of people that live in this state.

Most of Australia ‘s largest exports come from the excavation sector of primary industries, and include coal and Fe ore. In fact, some of the largest coal and Fe ore mines in the universe are located in Australia, bring forthing immense sums of these valuable resources for the universe.

Other big exports are gilded, rough crude oil, aluminum ores and assorted nutrient resources such as beef and wheat.

Did you cognize?

aˆ? Australia is a competitory net agricultural exporter, with around two-thirds of entire production being exported.

aˆ? In 2006-07, agricultural merchandises, including processed nutrient and drinks, accounted for around fifth part of Australian ware exports.

aˆ? Australia ‘s top four agricultural exports nationally are bovid meat, alcoholic drinks, wool and wheat.

( Beginning: Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade )

It ‘s amusing to believe that you could go all the manner across the universe to Japan, sit down in a eating house and happen yourself eating a steak from an Australian farm!

Australia ‘s native woods and plantations are besides extremely productive. The entire value of wood merchandise exports in 2007-08 was $ 2.5 billion. The chief export from Australia is woodchip with 6.2 million metric tons exported in 2007-08 valued at more than $ 1 billion. This represents 43 % of Australia ‘s wood merchandise exports. Of Australia ‘s entire woodchip exports 87 % was to Japan. After woodchip, paper and paper merchandises, sawnwood and wood based panels are our top three exports. ( Beginning: Australian Government, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry )

And allow ‘s non bury about seafood. More than 800 seafood species are commercially harvested and sold in Australia, under about 300 selling names, for local and abroad ingestion. The commercial crop, though low in volume, has high value. Australia has an first-class international repute for the quality of its exports of ear-shell, stone lobster, shrimp, crenation, tuna and coral trout. ( Beginning: Australian Government, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation )

In 2008-09 New South Wales exported $ 60.4 billion worth of goods and services accounting for 21.3 % of Australia ‘s entire exports. Our top three export merchandises were coal, aluminum and Cu ores and dressed ores.

.A For up to day of the month export information visit theA Department of Foreign Affairs and TradeA web site.

Coal is mined chiefly in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. 54 % of theA coalA mined in Australia is exported, largely to East Asia. In 2000/01, 258.5 million metric tons of coal was mined, and 193.6 million metric tons exported. Coal besides provides about 85 % of Australia ‘s electricity production.A In financial twelvemonth 2008/09, 487 million metric tons of coal was mined, and 261 million metric tons exported.A Australia is the universe ‘s prima coal exporter.

Australian Wine Export markets

The Australian Wine export market was deserving 2.8A billionA Australian dollarsA ( A $ ) a twelvemonth in June 2007, and was turning at 9 % dad. [ 30 ] A Of this about A $ 2A billion is accounted for by North America and the UK, and in this cardinal latter market Australia is now the largest provider of still vinos. 2007 statistics for the North American market show that Australian vino accounted for a 17 % portion of the entire value of U.S. imported vino, behind France with 31 % and Italy with 28 % . [ 31 ]

New selling schemes developed for the cardinal UK market encouraged clients to research premium Australian trade names, while keeping gross revenues of the lower-margin high-volume trade names, following research that indicated a celebratory dinner was more likely to be accompanied by an inferior Gallic vino than a premium Australian vino. [ 32 ] A This is partially due toA exchange rateA fluctuations, doing Australian vinos appear much cheaper than Gallic vinos in the UK and therefore perceived as being of poorer quality. While this state of affairs may be slightly mitigated by the continued rise in the Australian dollar during 2010, the stronger currency threatens to weaken Australian exports to the important US market.

Australian vino histories for a really big imported vino market portion in South Asiatic states and is the 2nd largest imported vino inA IndiaA with a market portion of 16 % .

Beef industry

The beef industry is the largest agricultural endeavor in Australia, and it is the 2nd largest beef exporter, behindA Brazil, in the universe. All provinces and districts of Australia support cowss engendering in a broad scope of climes. Cattle production is a major industry that covers an country in surplus of 200 million hectares. The Australian beef industry is dependent on export markets, with over 60 % of Australian beef production exported, chiefly to theA United States, A KoreaA andA Japan. [ 9 ] A The industry gained an advantage after the find ofA BSEA ( besides known asA huffy cow disease ) inA Canada, Japan and the United States, as Australia is free of the disease.

Lamb meat industry

Lamb has become an progressively of import merchandise as theA sheepA industry has moved its focal point fromA woolA production to the production of premier lamb. The beef meat industry and the lamb industry are represented byA Meat and Livestock AustraliaA ( MLA ) . Live export of cowss and sheep from Australia toA AsiaA and theA Middle EastA is a big portion of Australian meat export. Live export practises came under examination after the carrierA Cormo ExpressA transporting 52 000 animate beings was turned away fromA Saudi ArabiaA in 2003 due to suspected instances ofA scabby oral cavity. The sheep were finally given toA Eritrea. Media coverage has led to calls fromA carnal rightsA militants for the unrecorded export trade to discontinue.

DairyA merchandises are Australia ‘s 4th most valuable agricultural export.

Growth in the Australian dairy industry is dependent on spread outing export markets. Exports are expected to go on to turn over clip, peculiarly to Asia and the Middle East.


The AustralianA aquacultureA industry ‘s portion of this value has been steadily lifting and now represents around 32 per cent. The value of exports of piscaries merchandises in 2002-03 was $ 1.84 billion. Australia ‘s mainseafoodA export earners include rockA lobsters, A shrimps, A tunaA andA ear-shell.


The industry is export-oriented. Historically, up to 90 % of Australian wool was exported. The industry has suffered from a heavy demand for natural fibers, and a lessening in wool monetary values worldwide.

As of 2001 Australian wool production accounted for 9 % of universe production ( Australian Bureau of Statistics Data ) . However, it dominates the all right quality wool sector, bring forthing 50 % of the universe ‘s Merino wool. Although sheep are farmed Australia-wide, 36 % of the flock is inA New South Wales.

CoalA is mined in every province of Australia. It is used to bring forth electricity and is exported. 75 % of the coal mined in Australia is exported, largely to eastern Asia. In 2000/01, 258.5 million metric tons of coal was mined, and 193.6 million metric tons exported, lifting to 261 million metric tons of exports in 2008-09. [ 14 ] A Coal besides provides about 85 % of Australia ‘s electricity production. [ 16 ] A Australia is the universe ‘s prima coal exporter. [ 17 ]

Minerals and resources

Large measures of minerals and resources areA extractedA in Australia. These include:

Iron oreA – Australia was the universe ‘s 3rd largest provider in 2008 after China and Brazil, providing 342 million metric metric tons. [ 7 ]

NickelA – Australia was the universe ‘s 2nd largest manufacturer in 2006 after Russia. [ 8 ]

Bauxite/aluminiumA – Australia was the universe ‘s largest manufacturer in 2011.A [ 9 ]


GoldA – Australia is the 2nd largest manufacturer after China. [ 10 ]


UraniumA – Australia is responsible for 11 % of the universe ‘s production and was the universe ‘s 3rd largest manufacturer in 2010 after Kazakhstan and Canada. [ 11 ]

DiamondA – Australia has the 3rd largest commercially-viable sedimentations after Russia and Botswana. [ commendation needed ] Australia besides boasts the richest diamantiferous pipe with production making peak degrees of 42 metric dozenss ( 41 LT/46 ST ) per twelvemonth in the 1990s. [ commendation needed ]

OpalA – Australia is the universe ‘s largest manufacturer of opal, being responsible for 95 % of production. [ 12 ]

ZincA – Australia was 2nd merely to China in Zn production in 2008, bring forthing merely under 14 % of universe production. [ 13 ]

CoalA – Australia is the universe ‘s largest exporter of coal and 4th largest manufacturer of coal behind China, USA and India. [ 14 ]

Oil shale

PetroleumA – Australia is the 28th largest manufacturer of crude oil. [ commendation needed ]

Natural gasA – Australia is universe ‘s 3rd largest manufacturer of LNG and calculate to be universe leader by 2020.

rare Earths

Much of the natural stuff mined in Australia is exported overseas to states such as China for treating into refined merchandise. Energy and minerals constitute two tierces of Australia ‘s entire exports to China, and more than half of Australia ‘s Fe ore exports are to China. [ 15 ]


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