Assessing Electrodes And Nozzles Of Plasma Cutting Operation Engineering Essay

Air plasma cutting makes fast, high quality cuts on any conductive stuff. The plasma cutting procedure is besides good suited for piercing and force outing operations. Advanced plasma cutting machines offer a figure of extra benefits, including portability, adaptability, dependability and versatility. In this method, an inert gas ( in some units, compressed air ) is blown at high velocity out of a nose. At the same clip an electrical discharge is besides formed through that gas from the nose to the surface being cut, turning some of that gas to plasma. The plasma is sufficiently hot to run the metal being cut and moves sufficiently fast to blow liquefied metal off from the cut. Plasma can besides be used for plasma discharge welding and other machining applications. In Plasma Arc Cutting ( PAC ) , the plasma gas flow is enhanced so that the intense and profoundly perforating plasma jet cuts through the stuff and liquefied stuff is removed as cutting impurity. The internal torch constituents greatly influence cutting capableness and cut quality and are hence of import. In this paper critical appraisal about the life of the consumables like electrode and nose of the Plasma Arc Cutting equipment is attempted for varied thickness, cutting lengths, figure of piercing points and cutting velocities. An attempt has been made to set up a correlativity between the impacting parametric quantities and the life of the electrodes and the noses.

Cardinal words: Plasma Arc Cutting ( PAC ) , piercing points, plasma jet, impurity, Air plasma

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Introduction

Plasma is the 4th province of affair. It consists of ions, + vely charged atoms, – vely charged ions ( negatrons ) and + vely charged molecules. It besides contains neutrally charged atoms. Plasma is a good music director of electricity. Plasma exists at well high temperatures and is utilized by plasma cutting systems to cut metals. A gas is released through a really narrow gap, thereby heightening its high force per unit area. Before the gas escapes, an electrode is positioned in its manner that passes an electrical current through the gas. The gas atoms on being stimulated by the electric current green goods + vely and – vely charged ions. These ions collide with each other and the remainder of the gas atoms to bring forth more ions. In no clip, the gas obtains a superheated province or plasma.

Plasma cutting systems are nil but an electrical circuit that have an electrode playing as a – ve terminus ( cathode ) , and the metal sheet to cut, moving as the + ve positive terminus ( anode ) . The plasma jet is attracted towards the metal sheet and at this point, in the operation, can concentrate every bit much as 30, 0000 grades Fahrenheit or 16,6480 grades Celsius of heat on the metal sheet and thaws it. The narrow gap of the nose increases the force per unit area exerted by the gas which besides blows away the liquid metal, thereby helping the film editing of the metal sheet. The plasma discharge is kept thin and controlled with the aid of shield gases. A plasma cutter is provided with channels to let go of shield gases which exert force per unit area and command the plasma discharge and maintain the plasma jet directed on the metal sheet. Inert or semi-inert gases are used as shield gases to screen the country, where the plasma discharge or jet touches the metal. The plasma cutter is besides known as a plasma torch. Plasma cutting systems are available as manual and computer-controlled. The different types of plasma cutting techniques that are normally used are as follows.

Conventional Plasma Arc Cutting: In 1957, Union Carbide, introduced the ‘dry discharge ‘ technique of bring forthing plasma jet. This method uses different plasma gases to cut unstained steel, aluminum sheet or soft steel.

Air Plasma Cutting: In the 1960s, this method was used on a big graduated table in Eastern Europe. Air plasma cutting is 25 % faster than conventional plasma discharge cutting systems.

Water Shield Plasma Cutting: Alternatively of inert gases, H2O is used to screen the country of contact between the plasma jet and metal sheet. This method increases the electrode life by supplying a cooling consequence.

Water-Injection Film editing: In this method, H2O is injected radially to the plasma discharge to increase bottleneck of the discharge. A constricted plasma discharge is utile for preciseness film editing.

Underwater Film editing: The metal sheet is kept immersed in 2-3 inches of H2O and the plasma discharge is so used to cut it. This method reduces the noise, blaze of plasma discharge and fume produced during the plasma film editing

Physical belongingss of the metal and the current carrying capacity of the plasma cutter, determines how deep a plasma cutter can cut. Air plasma cutting makes fast, high quality cuts on any conductive stuff. The plasma cutting procedure is besides good suited to piercing and force outing operations. Advanced plasma cutting machines offer a figure of extra benefits, including portability, adaptability, dependability and versatility. Much like TIG welding, plasma film editing is a procedure in which an unfastened discharge is constricted by a little nose placed between an electrode and the workpiece. For decennaries, plasma cutters were equipped with transformers that made them heavy, bulky and hard to travel, but advanced inverter engineering has reduced the size and weight of these plasma cutting machines. For illustration, a plasma cutting machine equipped with advanced inverter engineering and rated at 80 As, may weigh less than 75 pound. At that size, the plasma cutting machine is capable of cutting mild steel and unstained steel to 1.250-in. midst and aluminum up to 0.875-in. midst. A conventional, transformer-based plasma cutter with the same A evaluation and cutting capableness, on the other manus, would weigh about 450 pounds.

Another challenge that conventional plasma cutters pose is in set uping an electrical connexion after traveling it from one public-service corporation power beginning to another. The job arises from the demand to fit public-service corporation input electromotive force with the conventional plasma cutter ‘s power beginning and its cycling demands, and frequently has small or nil to make with the plasma cutter or the quality of available public-service corporation power. Advanced engineering for input-power beginnings has greatly reduced and in some instances, eliminated these challenges. In the yesteryear, operators needed to guarantee that their plasma cutting tool would run on an bing public-service corporation power supply electromotive force. Without the proper electromotive force lucifer, the plasma cutting tool merely would non run or it would be badly damaged when they tried to get down it. Plasma cutting tool makers ab initio circumvented the job by offering machines that operated at multiple-voltages. These plasma film editing tools are typically designed to run away 230/ 460, 380 and 575 VAC.

The lone drawback was that the plasma cutter had to be manually adjusted to fit available electromotive force, and that frequently proved to be a time-consuming undertaking. Additionally, the plasma cutter ‘s electronics are susceptible to ruinous harm if the electromotive force is configured improperly. To extinguish voltage compatibility issues, advanced electronic circuitry allows the plasma cutter to feel incoming power and links to it automatically while supplying the right constellation. This eliminates the demand to open the plasma cutter and nexus wires manually. Some advanced plasma cutters are designed to run at any location, and in any state. These plasma cutters automatically sense and adjust their connexions internally to fit any primary power degree from 208 to 575 VAC on individual or three-phase circuits runing at 60 Hz. Many systems even will work on the predominately European frequence of 50 Hz. An added benefit of such engineering is the ability to manage fluctuations in the public-service corporation power supply, guaranting consistent cutting end product. It is besides possible to run plasma cutters from the subsidiary power of an engine driven welder/generator.

Dependability

Plasma cutters traditionally work in soiled environments in which airborne soil and other contaminations are platitude. Dirt buildup can take to overheating, and metal filings and salt sedimentations can do the control board to short circuit. To battle this, some systems combine air channels built into the centres of the plasma cutters with fans that automatically blow air through the channels to chill the cutters ‘ internal constituents. Critical constituents are located on the exterior of the channels where there is less chance for contaminations to roll up. Typically, aluminium heat sinks positioned inside the air channels dissipate the heat generated by the system ‘s electronics. Meanwhile, the cutters are equipped with variable resistances that sense constituent temperatures. When temperatures reach a preset degree, the resistances active cardinal circuits to get down fans that cool the constituents. After the decrease of the temperatures, the fans automatically shut off, minimising the potency for airborne contaminations to be pulled inside the machines, and conserving energy.

Gouging

The traditional method of force outing metals uses the C discharge force outing method. Carbon discharge force outing equipment comprises a power beginning, a hollow C rod and a tight air beginning. The power beginning is similar to a welding machine, but welding machines operate at low electromotive force and high current. For C discharge gouging, a high end product power beginning is needed to supply the equal electromotive force required for quality gouging. A plasma discharge cutter, on the other manus, can be used as a practical gouging tool. The plasma discharge procedure is effectual because it uses an highly concentrated high arc-stream speed. When gouging, a particular plasma discharge tip reduces constricts the plasma discharge to a specified degree. Less constriction green goodss lower arc-stream speed. At the same clip, the tip ‘s wider-diameter opening transforms the narrow cutting discharge into a comparatively broad and extremely effectual force outing discharge. To force out, the operator holds the torch at an angle of 40 grades to the workpiece and presses the trigger. Unlike the C discharge procedure, there is no demand to force the C rod into the workpiece to force out. There besides is no demand for the operator to set the distance of his manus to the workpiece as the C rod is consumed or to halt working to replace the rods. Alternatively, operators are able to go on force outing by keeping the necessary distance between the discharge and the workpiece and seting for travel velocity.

Plasma betterments

Two technological betterments to plasma arc cutters are torch-shield drag engineering and the riddance of high-frequency ( HF ) starts.

Besides its high arc-stream speed, a plasma discharge can bring forth temperatures every bit high as 72,032-degrees F. These belongingss are the grounds that plasma cutters slice through metals so rapidly and easy. However, attention must be taken with plasma arc cutters: If an operator cuts or Pierces a stuff excessively rapidly, the plasma discharge can blow back and damage the cutting tip. To minimise the potency for tip harm, electrically insulated Cu retarding force shields are used to insulate tips from workpiece. This significantly increases tip life and allows the operator to drag the torch across a workpiece, increasing productiveness. Many plasma discharge cutters use a high-frequency start to originate a plasma discharge. However, high frequences can interfere with nearby electronically controlled equipment and computing machines. To avoid that job, many plasma arc cutters use a contact start that allows the machine to get down without high frequence, yet present the same public presentation. [ 1 ]

Plasma Arc Cutting uses a transferred discharge to run a conductive work-piece and a high velocity gas jet removes the liquefied stuff. This cutting system consists of a DC power supply capable of supplying 200A, a distant high frequence starting motor, and the film editing torch. Alternatively of the work-piece, a water-cooled rotating Cu pealing serves as the anode. This allows the torch to be operated without really cutting the work-piece and bring forthing exhausts. In other words, it allows operation of the torch without the cost or byproducts associated with cutting stuff. Both the H2O chilling and a rotary motion velocity of 200 revolutions per minutes are needed to forestall harm to the anode. The internal torch constituents greatly influence cutting capableness and cut quality and are hence of import. The constituents of the torch are the cathode, swirl ring, nose and shield cap. The plasma gas flow through the nose and is given a swirl constituent by the whirl ring. A 2nd gas flow, called shield gas flows between the nose and the shield cap. Electrons are supplied to the discharge from the furnace lining metal insert through thermionic emanation. When cutting with O, Hf is often used as the emitter because it can defy the oxidizing atmosphere. The discharge is constricted by the nose, twirling the plasma gas and farther by shield gas flow. This bottleneck increases the arc current denseness, heat and speed.

LITERATURE SURVEY

High Temperature plasma was foremost considered for cutting applications in the 1950 ‘s when it was discovered that the discharge from a wolfram inert gas ( TIG ) welder could be constricted to bring forth much hotter plasma that could so be used for cutting. By go throughing the discharge through a 4.5 millimeter ( 3 /16.in ) diameter H2O cooled Cu nozzle the plasma would achieve higher temperature and scatter a slower rate. Plasma film editing was introduced to industry in 1955 for cutting aluminum and chromium steel steels. However it did non derive broad credence until about 1970 when new PAC techniques markedly improved the quality of the cut. Modern PAC equipment can present upto 1000 A at about 200 VDC and bring forth plasma temperature upto 33,0000 C ( 60,0000 F ) . The fluxing gas is delivered to the torch force per unit area upto 1.4 MPa ( 200 pounds per square inch ) ensuing in a plasma speed of several hundred metres per second. The high gas flow rate increases the efficiency of the procedure by adding impulse to the plasma jet to ease the remotion of liquefied metal from the cut zone. The high flow rate besides constricts the plasma jet and Acts of the Apostless to supply cool gas bed between the nose wall and the plasma jet. Further plasma

PLASMA Film editing

Plasma cutting procedure is by and large of two sorts. These two types are based on the method of originating the discharge. They are:

HF Contact Type

Pilot Arc Type

a ) The HF Contact type typically found in budget machines uses a high-frequency, high-potential flicker to ionise the air through the torch caput and originate an discharge. These require the torch to be in contact with the occupation stuff when starting, and so are non suited for applications affecting CNC film editing.

B ) The Pilot Arc type uses a two rhythm attack to bring forthing plasma, avoiding the demand for initial contact. First, a high-voltage, low current circuit is used to initialise a really little high-intensity flicker within the torch organic structure, thereby bring forthing a little pocket of plasma gas. This is referred to as the pilot discharge. The pilot discharge has a return electrical way built into the torch caput. The pilot discharge will keep itself until it is brought into propinquity of the work piece where it ignites the chief plasma cutting discharge. Plasma discharge are highly hot and are in the scope of 15,0000 Celsius.

Machine SPECIFICATIONS

Machine Name: – KOIKE VERSAGRAPH 4000Z

Working Fluids: –

Oxygen ( including the 1 for plasma ) 0.7 – 0.99 MPa

LPG 0.1 – 0.15 MPa

Compressed Air ( for machine and fume aggregator ) 0.5 – 0.7 MPa

Compressed Air ( including the 1 for plasma ) 0.7 – 0.99 MPa

Distilled Water for plasma 80 liters + Supply Water

Hardness 300 ppm

Iron 0.3 ppm

Silica 15 ppm

Entire Dissolved Salt 350 ppm

PH 6.5 – 8.5 ppm

Where an antifreeze solution is put in, electrical conduction should do it 100 Aµs or less.

Plasma Consumables

Electrode

Nozzles ( I† 1.7, I† 2.3 and I† 2.9 )

Swirl Ring

Insert Cap

Outer Cap

Gas Specifications

O2 Gas a‰? 99.7 % pure O2

C2H2 Pass JIS – K – 1902

L.P. Gas Pass Class 2 in JIS – K – 2240

Drive System

Longitudinal Dual Rack and Pinion

Transverse Rack and Pinion

Control Speed Specifications

Cuting Speed 0 – 6000 mm/min

Rapid Speed

Longitudinal Axis 27000 mm/min

Transverse Axis 36000 mm/min

Changeless Speed Control A± 5 %

Materials To Be Cut

Material Mild Steel and High Tensile Steel ( up to HT – 60 )

Surface Treatment Zn-rich Primer, Wash Primer and Black Plate

Plasma Power Device

Type KP – 4053 T1

Power Supply 3- I† 415V A± 10 %

50 Hz A± 1Hz

Input Capacitance 120 KVA

Outside Dimensions 700 ( W ) A- 1000 ( D ) A- 1350 ( H ) millimeter

Weight Approx. 400 kilogram

Torch Type 434 V – Ops

Figure 1 Fanuc 300i Model A type Controller for plasma film editing

CONSUMABLES IN PLASMA CUTTING MACHINE

Electrode & A ; Nozzle PAC

Figure 2 Used Hypertherm Electrode codification No. – 020382, and Nozzle nozzle codification No. – 120504 for Political action committee

Figure 3 New noses provide enhanced chilling consequence and longer service life.

Figure 4 New electrodes eliminate the demand to utilize tools for parts replacing, and better work efficiency.

Figure 5 New torch is equipped with a solenoid valve to supply longer life.

In any machine or equipment, there are some constituents which get exhausted or consumed during the class of operation. These constituents or parts are called consumables. As they got consumed during the operation, they need to be repaired or replaced as the instance may be. The chief job with the consumables lies in the clip and money involved in their fix or replacing. So in any professional organisation or company, sweetening of lives of the consumables is of higher precedences and hence is given needed importance. There are two types of consumables – direct and indirect consumables. The direct consumables are those which are straight involved with the procedure and are required for the work to be done. The indirect consumables are non straight involved with the procedure. The consumables in the plasma cutting machines are as follows: Electrode, Swirl ring, Nozzle, Inner associating Cap, shield, Outer retaining cap etc.

The Nozzle

Nozzle design flexible joints on the natural philosophies related to high-temperature gas flows, and basically it has to last a sensible sum of clip under really high temperatures. Its primary map is to compress the plasma gas to increase energy denseness and speed. The nose is besides instrumental in the electrical procedure that ionises the plasma gas before the existent film editing discharge starts. Inside certain noses, the gas really swirls around the electrode, making a centrifugal consequence that creates a cool bed of un-ionised gas between the discharge and the Cu nose. This, among other methods, is how a 25000 A°F energised discharges can go out through a Cu nose, and non immediately melt the Cu.

By and large, the life a nose is about 2.5 – 3 hours. The operators, as in the instance of electrodes, monitor the cut quality of the occupations and when the quality becomes below criterion, the nose is replaced. Often a nose will last longer than an electrode if the electrode is changed before it fails. Keeping close path of electrode life, and altering it before failure, can protract nozzle life and lower consumable costs.

The Electrode

Connected to the negative end product from the power supply, the electrode powers the plasma discharge. It besides conducts high-voltage ( besides called high-frequency ) energy during the get downing sequence. This energy ionises the film editing gas, leting the plasma discharge to get down.

As the chief contact point for the plasma discharge, the electrode gets really hot. An O electrode ‘s terminal emitter, made of Hf ( Hf ) , can transcend 3000 A°F during operation. For this ground, most plasma cutting electrodes transporting more than 100 Amperes of cutting current are liquid-cooled as opposed to gas-cooled electrodes in smaller mechanized and handheld plasma systems. The drifting coolant tubing, a cardinal constituent of both the electrode and torch design, is slackly installed in the torch. When the electrode is installed, the coolant tubing self-aligns to the electrode ‘s internal characteristics. Coolant enters the top of the tubing at comparatively high force per unit area and is forced through a tight tantrum around the hollow factory of the electrode. This squeezing increases the coolant speed, which efficaciously causes the coolant to deprive away the steam build-up around the hot Hf, doing heat-removal efficient.

A new electrode has a pregnant chad machined in the Hf emitter tip. This is done to coerce the arc fond regard point to a dead-centre place. A used electrode will hold a little cavity caused by the vaporization of the Hf during get downing and steady-state film editing. A new electrode wears quickly for about the first and last 10 % of its life. In the center of its life rhythm, the electrode wear is slow and predictable. Operations utilizing longer cuts require fewer starts and, therefore, better electrode life.

It is common to see black Markss that start at the jinx and whirl around the margin of the electrode organic structure towards the Hf emitter. These are normally caused by soil left inside the torch during a consumable alteration out. But, if those Markss become outstanding, etched into the Cu electrode organic structure, it could bespeak severely contaminated plasma gas.

When a new electrode is fitted in the torch organic structure, the operators reset the life of the electrode in the terminus to 100 % . This puting to 100 % starts to diminish as the electrode is put into operation. As a general process, the electrode is replaced when the scene ( the life-span ) gets reduced to 40 % . However, there is another manner of look intoing the electrode life. This method involves analyzing the occupations that are being cut by the aid of a peculiar electrode. Equally long as the occupations being obtained from cutting have the desired cut-edges, the electrode is non changed, even if the life decreases below 40 % . Besides, if the cut-edges of the occupation obtained are non satisfactory, the electrode will be replaced, although the life may be more than 40 % . Cuting machine operators by and large learn to detect alterations in the cut quality in the workpiece or in sound from the plasma system. In most instances, nevertheless, altering the electrode before it fails allows the nose and the shield to last thirster, efficaciously take downing runing costs while keeping high cut quality degrees.

Life of Consumables in Plasma Cutting Machine

The paper trades with the survey of the consumables in a plasma cutting machine and ways to optimize their lives. The experimental work is divided into two wide countries. The first portion trades with the complete apprehension of the different consumables in a plasma cutting machine. This involves acquiring acquainted with all the consumables used in the machine, their specific utilizations and to happen out the grounds of their acquiring consumed. As two of the chief consumables are the nose and the electrode, this portion involves a clip survey of a nose and electrodes to happen out their life spans. It besides deals with some methods to heighten the lives of the consumables. In the experiment two types of noses are used based on the diameter of their openings. They are – I† 2.3 and I† 2.9. The home base thickness for these noses is as follows: [ table1 ]

Nozzle Diameter

Plate Thickness

I† 2.3

6 – 22 millimeter

I† 2.9

25 – 32 millimeter

Table 1 Nozzle diameters for different home base thicknesses

Data for Different Nozzles [ Table 2 – tabular array 9 ]

I† 2.3

Material Mild Steel – Blackplate

Nozzle I† 2.3 ( Roentgen: 40016360

Liter: 40016363 )

Electrode A-plus ( 40016358 )

Gas Oxygen/Air ( Nitrogen )

Cuting Height 8.5 millimeter

Height Control System Dr. ELEC III

Plate Thickness

Bevel Range

Cuting Current

Nozzle

9 – 15 millimeter

Bottom 30A° – Top 45A°

260 A

I† 2.3

Table 2 Recommended film editing Scope

Plate Thickness

Bevel Range

Cuting Current

Nozzle

6 – 8 millimeter

-30A° – +45A°

260 A

I† 2.3

9 – 18 millimeter

-30A° – +45A°

19 – 25 millimeter

-30A° – +45A°

Table 3 Available Cuting Scope

Mode Change

Switch Position

PO2

( l/min )

Pair

( l/min )

AO2

( l/min )

AAir

( l/min )

Start Check

0

38

0

20

Cuting Check

38

0

0

20

PO2 Plasma Oxygen AAir Assist Air

PAir Plasma Air SA Air Start Assist Air

AO2 Assist Oxygen

Table 4 Gas Flow Rate Set Value – 260 A, Setting, I† 2.3 Nozzle, Thickness – 6-25 millimeter

Thickness ( millimeter )

Current ( A )

Cuting Speed ( mm/min )

Torch Setting Angle

Kerf Compensation ( millimeter )

6

260

5728

-6.0A°

1.20

8

260

4848

-5.2A°

1.40

10

260

4157

-4.5A°

1.50

12

260

3604

-3.8A°

1.60

14

260

3155

-3.2A°

1.70

15

260

2960

-3.0A°

1.70

16

260

2784

-2.8A°

1.80

20

260

2012

-2.2A°

1.90

22

260

1809

-2.8A°

2.00

Table 5 Cuting Speed and Torch Setting Angle Data ( For 0A° Bevel Angle )

I† 2.9

Material Mild Steel – Blackplate

Nozzle I† 2.9 ( Roentgen: 40016361, L: 40016364 )

Electrode A-plus ( 40016358 )

Gas Oxygen/Air ( Nitrogen )

Cuting Height 8.5 millimeter

Height Control System Dr. ELEC III

Plate Thickness ( millimeter )

Bevel Range

Cuting Current ( A )

Nozzle

9 – 15

-30A° – +45A°

320

I† 2.9

16 – 20

-30A° – +45A°

400

21 – 30

-30A° – +30A°

400

31 – 32

Merely 0A° Target Cutting

400

Table 6 Recommended Cutting Range

Plate Thickness ( millimeter )

Bevel Range

Cuting Current ( A )

Nozzle

4.5 – 8

-30A° – +30A°

320

I† 2.9

9 – 15

-30A° – +45A°

320

16 – 21

-35A° – +45A°

400

22 – 30

-41A° – +45A°

400

31 – 36

-30A° – +30A°

400

37 – 40

Merely 0A° Target Cutting

400

Table 7 Available Cuting Scope

Thickness ( millimeter )

Current ( A )

Cuting Speed ( mm/min )

Torch Setting Angle

Kerf Compensation ( millimeter )

25

400

1927

-2.4A°

2.10

28

400

1678

-2.2A°

2.00

32

400

1416

-1.7A°

2.40

Table 8 Cuting Speed and Torch Setting Angle Data ( For 0A° Bevel Angle )

Nozzle

Plate Thickness ( millimeter )

Kerf Compensation ( millimeter )

Piercing Height ( millimeter )

Cuting Height ( millimeter )

I† 2.3

13 – 19

1.60

9

4

20 – 22

1.70

12

4

I† 2.9

23 – 40

2.10

12

5

Table 9 Piercing Height and Cutting Height Data, Cutting Type – ‘I’-Cut

Plate Size

No. of Pierce Points

Cuting Length ( m )

Cuting Speed ( mm/min. )

Cuting clip

Remarks

1500X2030X10

27X2

41.99X2

4157

20.2

New nozzle & A ; new electrode

Life of Electrode=2 hour. 7 min.

Entire no. of Pierce points=249

Entire cutting length=403.94 m

1500X2030X10

23

41.57

4157

10

1500X830X10

14

16.63

4157

4

1500X6300X12

10

18.02

3604

5

1500X6300X12

12

28.83

3604

8

1500X450X6

4X2

4.3X2

5728

1.5

1500X435X6

14X2

14.16X2

5728

4.94

2500X3955X16

52

80.85

2784

29.04

2500X6300X14

10

29.39

3155

9.31

2500X1750X20

8

25.31

2012

12.58

2500X710X22

6

9.6

1809

5.31

2500X1215X20

12

21.89

2012

10.88

600X800X28

12

10.95

1678

6.52

Table 10 Data for new electrode and new nose

Plate Size

No. of Pierce Points

Cuting Length ( m )

Cuting Speed ( mm/min. )

Cuting clip

Remarks

1500X2500X28

8

20.16

1678

12.01

New Electrode

Life of Electrode=2 hour. 45 min.

Entire no. of Pierce points=203

Entire cutting length=382.33 m

Life of Nozzle=3 hour. 50 min.

Entire no. of Pierce points=384

Entire cutting length=683.01 m

1450X3650X28

48

72.15

1678

43

1500X1500X20

8X2

4.5X2

2012

4.47

1500X1890X8

12

20.14

4848

4.15

1400X480X8

4

6.02

4848

1.24

1500X6300X6

1

1.5

5728

0.26

1500X6300X8

1

1.5

4848

0.31

1500X6300X16

1

1.5

2784

0.54

1500X4500X10

58

88.83

4157

21.37

2500X6200X20

21X2

72.45X2

2012

72.02

1500X6300X10

12

16.63

4157

4

Table 11 Data for new electrode

Tables [ Table 10 – tabular array 14 ] are picturing the experimental consequences.

Plate Size

No. of Pierce Points

Cuting Length ( m )

Cuting Speed ( mm/min. )

Cuting clip

Remarks

2500X6300X14

18X3

56.55X3

3155

53.77

Life of Electrode=2 hour. 45 min.

Entire no. of Pierce points=206

Entire cutting length=457.64 m

2500X6300X14

18

56.55

3155

17.92

2500X1215X20

12

21.89

2012

10.88

2500X6200X20

28

76.72

2012

38.13

1500X1600X12

22

33.05

3604

9.17

1500X1600X12

22

33.05

3604

9.17

1500X1025X12

7

15.72

3604

4.36

1500X1075X12

16

14.58

3604

4.05

500X1000X12

6

7.85

3604

2.18

2500X1600X20

5

16.3

2012

8.1

2500X1680X20

16

12.28

2012

6.1

Table 12 Data for new electrode and new nose

Plate Size

No. of Pierce Points

Cuting Length ( m )

Cuting Speed ( mm/min. )

Cuting clip

Remarks

1000X4475X20

8

72.89

2012

36.23

New Nozzle and New Electrode

Life of Electrode=2 hour. 32 min.

Entire no. of Pierce points=216

Entire cutting length=441.73 m

1500X2435X8

4

20.97

4848

4.33

950X1140X20

2

6.53

2012

3.24

2500X6300X25

20

49.47

1927

25.67

2500X5600X22

20

57.2

1809

31.62

1500X4400X6

24

54.83

5728

9.57

1500X6300X10

71

84.56

4157

20.34

1500X5700X10

36

57.13

4157

13.74

1500X1420X6

8X2

13.37X2

5728

4.67

360X320X10

4

2.83

4157

0.68

715X365X12

5

5.58

3604

1.55

250X620X12

6

3

3604

0.83

Table 13 Data for new electrode and new nose

Plate Size

No. of Pierce Points

Cuting Length ( m )

Cuting Speed ( mm/min. )

Cuting clip

Remarks

1500X6300X10

71

84.56

4157

20.34

New Nozzle and New Electrode

Life of Electrode=2 hour. 32 min.

Entire no. of Pierce points=216

Entire cutting length=441.73 m

1500X5700X10

36

57.13

4157

13.74

1500X6300X12

10

61.02

3604

16.93

600X2800X12

2

12.204

3604

3.39

2500X4240X16

11

52.54

2784

18.87

2500X1700X16

4

17.58

2784

6.31

400X465X12

6

6.1

3604

1.69

600X2960X12

2

13.05

3604

3.62

600X2280X16

2

10.31

2784

3.7

625X1230X20

2

5.85

2012

2.91

1500X700X12

16

15.84

3604

4.4

930X3700X12

12

18.29

3604

5.07

1000X1000X12

8

8.4

3604

2.33

835X850X12

8X2

13.61X2

3604

7.55

1500X500X12

20

13.23

3604

3.67

2500X6300X20

3

17.13

2012

8.51

2500X4390X16

8

32.65

2784

11.73

Table 14 Data for new electrode and new nose

Figure 6 Life of the Electrode Vs. Weighted Speed

As revealed from the [ figure 6 ] the life of the electrode has an oscillating character with the velocity of cutting. The leaden velocity here is calculated on the footing no. of piercing points. The oscillating behaviour may be due to the waves sing the heat soaking clip of the film editing surfaces.

Figure 7 Life of the nose

Figure 8 Life of the nozzle vs. weighted Pierce point

From the [ figure 7 ] it is observed that with the addition of the no. of perforated point ‘s life of the nose decreases significantly. For piercing the wear and tear of the noses take topographic point quickly.

Figure 9 Life of the Nozzle V Speed

From the figure [ figure 9 ] it is revealed that with the cutting velocity the life of the nose increases. This incremental behaviour is of additive nature. After making a extremum value the life of the nozzle lessenings. The increase occurs due to the better heat soaking up for higher cutting velocity. After a peak value the life is reduced may be due to non-soaking of the heat by the cutting surface.

Degree centigrades: Documents and SettingsAdministratorDesktopNew Picture.png

Figure 10 Life of the electrode vs. cutting surface

In the figure [ figure 10 ] the life of Electrode ( min. ) is plotted against the cutting Surface ( M2 ) . The points are plotted and a additive graph is obtained. Though at some topographic points a small spot of non-linearity is observed in the center. The above graph shows that as the surface country is increased the life of the electrode ( min. ) increases linearly. As the surface country increases the heat evolved during plasma procedure is utilized ( and less heat is absorbed by the electrode ) in cutting therefore the electrode life is increased.

Slope at point 1= ( 141-128 ) / ( 6.05-5.35 ) = 19 ( approx )

Slope at point 2 = ( 165-152 ) / ( 6.95-6.3 ) = 20

Degree centigrades: Documents and SettingsAdministratorLocal SettingsTempTemporary Directory 3 for attachments_2009_11_03.zipNew Picture ( 3 ) .png

Figure 11 Life of the nozzle vs. cutting surface

The above graph [ figure 11 ] shows the life of Nozzle ( min. ) V. Cuting Surface ( M2 ) . The points are plotted and a additive graph is obtained. The above graph shows as the surface country is increased for changeless velocity of cutting, the life of the nose ( min. ) increases linearly. As the surface country increases the heat evolved during plasma procedure is distributed ( and less heat is absorbed by the nose ) in cutting therefore the nozzle life is enhanced.

Slope at point 1= ( 230-164 ) / ( 9.5-6.9 ) = 25 ( approx )

Slope at point 2 = ( 266-230 ) / ( 11.1-9.5 ) = 23 ( approx )

Decisions

The heat dissipation in plasma film editing has a major function to play in finding the nose and electrode life.

With the addition of the cut surface country during cutting for specific cutting velocity, the heat evolved during plasma procedure is better utilised ( and less heat is absorbed by the electrode ) in cutting therefore the electrode life is enhanced. This increase is in most instances have a additive character.

As the cut surface country is increased for changeless cutting velocity, the life of the nose ( min. ) increases linearly.

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