Architecture Of The 20th Century Cultural Studies Essay

Architecture refers to the 1 of the most ancient people ‘s activities and this means that 1000s old ages ago the footing of the development of this fantastic art was founded. When coming to the metropolis, we can see castles, town halls, private bungalows, built in different architectural manners. And precisely due to this manner we define the era of edifice, societal and economical degree of the state, imposts, traditions of the state and wonts of this or that state, its civilization, history, national and religious heredity, even piques and characters of the people populating at that place.

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Architecture, or the art of edifice, forms spacial environment for the life and activities of people. Separate edifices and their ensembles, squares and gardens, Parkss and bowls, colonies and the whole metropoliss – their beauty can do certain feelings and emotions. This makes the architecture the art – the art of making edifices and constructions harmonizing to the Torahs of beauty. And, as any sort of art, architecture is closely connected with the life of the society, its history, positions and political orientation. The best edifices and buildings in the architectural manner shortly become the symbols of states and metropoliss. The whole universe knows about the antediluvian Acropolis in Athens, the Great Wall in China, St. Pater ‘s Cathedral in Rome, and Eiffel Tower in Paris.

The art of architecture is the societal art. Even today it coincides with the history and is included to the civilization of the present yearss. In the society of mass ingestion private orders and commercial directionality of the edifice activity the designer is frequently limited in his actions, but he ever leaves the right to take the linguistic communication of architecture, and every clip it was the hard manner, as the architecture is a great art and the exact scientific discipline at the same clip. That is why we remember the ancient civilisations non merely because of the wars and trade, but because of the memorials of architecture they left. So, we need to pay attending to the of import thing: architecture is an exact barometer of the degree of the development of the civilisation, its history, civilization and rational development, because each state – Germany, France, Russia, Italy, Egypt has its ain face, demoing their imposts and traditions. We may decidedly state that the architecture is a naming card of each state or state.

The subject of the present rating is the development of modernism and postmodernism in architecture. We shall seek to touch upon all the of import fact of these two inclinations and give the most graphic illustrations of the each manner.

Modernism is one of the inclinations in architecture, which covers the creativeness of the designers of Europe of the period from the 20s to the 70-80s of the twentieth century. The word “ modernismo ” from Latin means “ modern, up-to-date ” inclination. The creative activity of new edifices at the beginning of the century caused a great roar, but at the terminal of the century merely unfavorable judgment is left.

The construct of modernism itself means the creative activity of something new, the building of edifices, wholly different from the old 1s. All this reflected non merely in the outer position of the edifices, but in their cardinal kernel. At this clip at that place appeared the construct of “ the prism of glass and concrete ” , because modernism demanded the latest accomplishments in the domain of building stuffs, and the entire absence of interior decorator ‘s decor. The edifice stuffs and the unusual building of the edifice were the decor itself. The doctrine of the modernism consisted of the entire rejection of all historical inside informations and the “ international ” character of the edifice. But taking into history this fact, modernistic edifices do non look single-type ; the existent chef-d’oeuvre of the modernism architecture is one of a sort and unique in its ain manner.

A great influence on the universe architecture caused an outstanding Gallic designer Charles Edouard Jeanneret-Gris ( 1887-19850 ) – one of the laminitiss of modernism and international manner. Practitioner and theoretician in the domain of architecture he tended to reply existent demands of the society, taking into history chances, given by the modern engineerings. His ideal of a edifice is the simpleness and sharpness of geometrical and ferroconcrete buildings, which opened new chances to the creative activity of perfectly new composings and signifiers. Admired by the machine techniques, Charles understood architecture as an art and paid a great attending to the emotional influence of its images. Le Corbusier formulated five rules of modern architecture: 1 ) house on the stations, 2 ) garden on the level roof, 3 ) free program, 4 ) horizontally broad Windowss, 5 ) free composing of the facade. It was Le Corbusier who suggested the thought of the sky-scrapers in large metropolis, assisting to salvage free infinite and to utilize it more carefully. His undertakings break the thoughts of feudal system architecture and indicate new graduated tables and infinite organisation of the metropolis of the twentieth century. Some of his greatest undertakings are: Palace of League of Nations, Chandigarh City, Villa Savoye, Ronchamp Chapel, Le Corbusier Centre, United Le Habitation, United Nations Headquarters.

A great function in the development of the modern architecture plays the activity of the school of Bauhaus in Germany, header by the German designer, Gropius. One of the prince-les of this architectural school was the inclination of economical infinite and planning. The technology and proficient rules were in the head, every bit good as vividly expressed constructive construction of the edifice. The bright illustration of such a inclination is the edifice of Bauhaus, built harmonizing to the undertaking of Gropius in Dessau. The edifice itself consists of the different phases of the regular signifier. Each of the phases performs its ain intent. Smooth concrete walls in the contrast with immense Windowss in the signifier of broad horizontal gaps, the absence of the elements of decor, laconicism – all this adds up to the alleged constructive manner of modernism.

A batch of experiments took topographic point in Los Angeles. In fact, if you study Los Angeles in architectural manner, you will see that this metropolis is an architectural kaleidoscope. The thing is, the province of California has ever been rich and as a affair of fact it must match to its degree of the capital of universe ‘s dad industry. The Case Study House plan, launched in 1945, made the most influential parts to the development of architecture. The purpose of the plan was to affect gifted designers to make low-priced lodging. But under the definition “ low -cost lodging ” it was meant wholly new, modern, unusual edifices, which can be built by agencies of low cost stuffs. This thought occurred John Entenza, the editor of the magazine “ Art and Architecture ” , who wanted to construct the new metropolis, but understood that during the station war old ages it would non be that easy. Finally, by the terminal of the plan in 1966, enthusiastic designers, who participated in it ( Richard Neutra, Charles and Ray Eames, Eero Saarinen, Craig Ellwood and others ) completed 36 undertakings, which changed the position of Los Angeles wholly. With the flow of clip Los Angeles changed and improved, bit by bit going one of the most fantastic, antic and incredible metropoliss of the universe. Los Angeles is a metropolis, full of chef-d’oeuvres of architecture: weather architectural determinations, unbelievable combinations of manner and the eternal flight of bright thoughts.

A great influence had the development of the proficient advancement. Some of the designers of those times worshiped engineerings and in some instances it had non even inclination, but fetichism. Ludwig Mies new wave der Rohe, a celebrated designer of those times, developed the manner of glazed three-dimensional edifices of 30-40 floors with nonsegmented infinite interior. His architecture can be characterized as the cult of glass and steel, the rule of economic system, the simpleness of signifiers, polish in inside informations, the humdrum and study in the same clip. Monotony defines the manner of about all his undertakings ( houses in Chicago, the 22 – floored edifice of the Sigrem company in New York and so on ) .

After the World War II the development of engineerings took a really rapid growing, it became easier to raise buildings of perfectly new but simple undertakings. The architecture of those times wholly depended on the technological advancement.

In the 2nd portion of the 20th century the spirit of the international manner and modernism exhausted itself. Peoples became fed up with the humdrum and uniformity of the edifices. All this created the feeling of depression and low liquors. As the reaction to this, in the late seventies of the twentieth century at that place appeared immense edifices in USA, which were a batch bigger than those in the manner of modernism. It was hard to bind their graduated tables with the graduated table of people, it made people think that these edifices were of the infinite degree, non the Earth one. The smooth surface of the edifice did non hold the division of the floors outside, so it merely reflected the sky and this was gorgeous. Subsequently, such sort of buildings appeared in several other metropoliss of the state, and now they wholly dictated their ain criterions of manner. From this really point we can now talk about the inception of the postmodernism in architecture. Masters of this art tried to convey imagination back to the architecture, which made it non the simple hard-on of edifices, but a existent art. The designers of postmodernism tried to add phantasy to this manner, every bit good as innovation, complicated images, associations. One more quality which distinguishes the architecture of postmodernism is the desire to bind new buildings with the historically metropolis milieus, and non to botch it with the new edifices and to foretell the urban context of the future edifices. Sometimes postmodernism is besides called contextuality, because postmodernist designers do non seek to utilize old signifiers and images, they merely seek to do remembrances, decoded associations, which make the art a game of hard symbols and paradigms. The most graphic illustration of that is the Piazza d’Italia – an urban public place in New Orleans, Louisiana, built by the Charles Moore. The desire of the clients were to make the material embodiment of nostalgia – the designer executed in the signifier of a grotesque, making the montage of the classical European architectural motives, which is situated around the immense rock map of Italy. It is apparent that one of the intents of such a building is the initiation of associations with the ancient architecture.

Among the designers of European postmodernism the undermentioned must be mentioned: Aldo Rossi, who created an interesting undertaking of the graveyard in Moden ( 1974 ) ; brothers Crie, Mario Botta, Hans Holien.

Mario Botta added new characteristics to the postmodernist techniques, which subsequently became one of the chief rules of this genre. His Villa in Switzerland do non necessitate communicating: they are the embodiment of solitariness, isolation.

Han dynasties Holien, an designer from Austria, in his undertaking of the travel bureau in Vienna tried to picture semblances, feelings, and dreams of people who intend to travel to the far-away states. At the topographic point, where the modernist designer would raise glass walls and hang them with the advertizements, Hans puts steel thenar trees, among which stands the classical column. The bird of Joves are winging above the hard currency desk. The architecture here seems like a theater, and each client feels himself an histrion, who plays one of the chief parts in here. The maestro managed to make the ambiance of something unusual, mystical, and full of the expectancies of work outing some enigmas.

But the chief advantage of postmodernism is that the linguistic communication of architectural signifiers became richer, the volumes and composings became more expressive, and the construct of beauty became apprehensible even in the context of constructions. Architects showed regard to the historical background and fulfilled a batch of undertakings of Restoration of historically ancient parts of the metropoliss. And what is the most of import – they brought architecture back to the domain of art.

“ Postmodernist architecture is characterized by the assorted ways in which it refuses this rule of univalence. The first and most obvious of these is through a return to the sense of the meaningful or referential map of architecture. In the work particularly of the designers Robert Venturi and Denise Scott-Brown, there is to be found a new tolerance for architecture that is prepared to gesticulate beyond itself, to admit its significance, intent or environment. ” ( Steven Connor )

Here it would be good to state several words about Robert Venturi, an outstanding American designer, who studied architecture at Princeton University. Later he taught architecture in several universities of USA and the sum of his experience allowed him to print his first book, which called “ Complexity and Contradiction in Modern Architecture ” in 1966. This really book dictated the development of the manner of universe ‘s architecture for the following several decennaries. Venturi does non afraid to show his personal thoughts, his vision of perfect edifices, his ain architecture of the hereafter. He explains his ideas carefully and in item in his book. “ I like complexness and contradiction in modern architecture. I do non wish incoherency or flightiness of unqualified architecture nor the cherished elaboratenesss of picturesqueness or expressionism. Alternatively, I speak about the complex and contradictory architecture based on the profusion and ambiguity of modern experience, including that experience, which is built-in in art. ” ( Venturi )

Venturi continued to develop his thoughts and to come true his fantastic undertakings. He became one of the most celebrated among the designers of those times and was in great demand. He liberally shared his thoughts and he admitted that he was at the border of making new inclination. But it must be mentioned, that Venturi himself does non acknowledge himself being the male parent of postmodernism, he perfectly refuses to be so. He says that he does non hold anything in common with this inclination and he is of strong belief, that to bind the up-to-date architecture with the one of the yesteryear is pathetic. There are a batch of sentiments, and despite Venturi does non like the chance to go the male parent of postmodernism, a batch of critics and scientists continue to see him so.

It is instead hard to qualify his manner, every bit good as it is hard to qualify any work of postmodernism, because each individual finds something personal for himself, creates his ain images and measure dorsums. Venturi was non afraid to show his personal likes and dislikes. “ I like elements which are hybrid instead than pure ; compromising, instead than clean ; distorted instead than straightforward ; equivocal instead than articulated ; tiring every bit good as interesting, inconsistent and ambiguous. ” ( Venturi ) . As you can see, there is a great sum of words, with the aid of which we may depict the inclination of postmodernism. “ Complexity and Contradiction ” is a fantastic manual of architecture, which describes every item, every paragraph of this art. A small spot subsequently, in 1972 Robert Venturi together with Denise Scott Brown and Steven Izenour, published another book: “ Learning from Las Vegas ” . In this really book the writers dwell upon the signifiers of edifices of main roads, its symbols and commercial iconography, which shortly became the chief subject of Venturi`s activity. If to be more exact, this book analyzed the symbols of the strip with the purpose to understand the symbolism of architecture. On the strip, big, pulling a batch of attending symbols were the chief points of probe.

The influence of Venturi`s plants would non be so large if it was non for his pattern. Some of the most of his successful undertakings were: the Philadelphia Orchestra Hall ( 1987-96 ) , the Museum of Contemporary Art in San Diego ( 1996 ) , and Sainsbury Wing of the National Gallery in London ( 1991 ) .

The chief difference between the manner of modernism and postmodernism is simpleness and minimal art in the first instance and the diverseness and decor in the 2nd. The celebrated slogan of modernism is “ less is more ” , and on the top of the development of postmodernism Venturi claimed the new 1: “ Less is a dullard ” . Modernists believed that signifiers must hold maps, to be practical. They did non utilize complicated and expensive stuffs ; they did non admit elements of decor and ornamentation. Postmodernism declined all the canons of simpleness and miserliness. There were no bounds in stuffs and ornament. Venturi saw the new manner of architecture as a playful, humourous and bizarre animal, everybody must look up to.

So, architecture is still developing, it has no boundary lines and now it does non hold to be socially mandatory, but it has to be esthetically more of import than the conflict and the pretentious edifices of our modernist yesteryear.

On the moving ridge of the architectural roar, there appeared a batch of truly talented designers, who show their thoughts in the most incredible manner, making unbelievable metropoliss and town of the hereafter. It must be mentioned, that the proficient advancement is still developing, and it will non be a error if we say that there is nil impossible presents. The undertakings of the edifices of the hereafter are so alone and seem to be impossible to construct ; they continue to look all over the universe. While adverting the most celebrated and accepted Masterss of the present yearss it is apparent to speak about Zaha Hadid, an Iraqi-British designer. Bing a miss of 11 she decided to go an designer. After graduating from the section of mathematics in American University, she entered the architectural school of London. She was on of the best pupils of the school and was the lone miss, who showed success and endowment on such graduated table. She did non desire to halt on learning in the academy of architecture and continued to take portion in competitions.

She won a batch of awards and eventually in 1994 she became celebrated after her undertaking of the opera theater in Cardiff won the competition. But the proprietor after long struggles rejected the undertaking, being afraid of the originality of the architectural determinations. Her first fulfilled undertaking was Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Arts in Cincinnati. From this really minute influential people from companies from all over the universe began to ask for Zaha for doing undertakings for their edifices. Soon Zaha Hadid became the first adult female to win the Pritzker Architecture Prize, architecture ‘s equivalent of the Nobel Prize.

“ Hadid ‘s strength is both her expletive and her approval. A expletive because strong character can do clients run for the hills. Until late Hadid was more celebrated non for the edifices she had built, but for the 1s she had non built – preserved merely in her famously vigorous, dramatic images. In the terminal, though, her strength is a approval. Like architectural natural choice, it helps to weed out weak undertakings and weak clients, so that when architecture is eventually built, it is every bit strong-minded as its creator. “ ( Design Museum + British Council )

Zaha`s architecture wholly depicts her ain character: diverse, unusual, alone, mystical, like from the other planets. She is a strong, brave adult female, and a batch of people will believe carefully before disrupting her. Among her celebrated plants are: BMW Central Building in Germany, Ordrupgaard extension in Denmark, CMA CGM Tower in France, Guangzhou Opera House in China and so on and so forth. Peoples adore her manner and most of them even can non explicate why. In most of the instances people do non to the full understand what she meant, but they are still similar nuts to her edifices. Because what she is making has ne’er been done before. And people, as it is already known, appreciate all the new. “ Hadid ‘s architecture denies its ain solidness. Short of making existent signifiers that morph and change form – still the material of scientific discipline fiction – Hadid creates the solid setup to do us perceive infinite as if it morphs and alterations as we pass through ” ( Design Museum + British Council )

It is besides Dubai metropolis which is deserving adverting. It is non a secret that the state if Arab Emirates is highly rich and they can afford the most expensive edifices in the universe. Very frequently Dubai buildings are called Dubai admirations. Truly, what one can see at that place he will ne’er see anyplace else. Supertall skyscraper, which is considered the highest edifice n the universe ; Zaha Hadid`s dancing towers, entwining with each other, seem as if they are soft ; ‘0-14 tower ‘ , created for concern yearss, holding two beds, the infinite between the beds is about 1 metre, which helps to chill the edifice ; ‘Dubai pearl ‘ , a hotel of extraordinary design ; and besides ‘Dubai expansive pyramid ‘ , ‘the ‘Arabian blade ‘ , ‘Dubai towers ‘ and so on and so away. It is apparent that in several old ages Dubai will go the metropolis of the hereafter, the metropolis of the new civilisations and coevalss. Dubai undertakings are those, which must be studied carefully and be competed with.


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