Analysis Of The Working Capital Management Finance Essay

Working capital or revolving or circulating or short term capital is needed for the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours operations of every concern activity as it is of import for financing short term and current assets such as hard currency, marketable securities, debitors and stock lists. Sufficient working capital helps the company to take advantage of new chances or to accommodate new alterations and company can prosecute their debitors early by offering them a hard currency price reduction off the monetary value owed and can offer recognition line to their clients. More than that the company will acquire good fiscal repute and can anticipate co-operation from trade creditors at times of fiscal trouble.

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My Undertaking is conducted at the caput office of Kirloskar Pneumatic Co. Ltd. Pune. My survey is based on the importance of working capital direction in KPCL and how it impact on the profitableness of the concern. During the undertaking I interviewed the executives and staff to roll up the information, and besides made usage of company records & A ; one-year studies. The informations collected were so compiled, tabulated and analyzed. For my analysing purpose I make usage of assorted ratios and computations. My thesis contains the company profile, literature reappraisal including commendations the benefits of this research, methodological analysis, analysis and reading and the clip use for the surveies and bibliography would be illustrated in the following followers pages.

The chief aims behind of this survey are:

To place how Kirloskar Company maintains its on the job capital at appropriate degree and the beginnings and flow of working capital and how the programming is done on the crisis clip.

To set up how on the job capital direction aid out to put assorted concern policy determination in operation such as buying, funding, enlargement and dividend etc. and the hard currency and bank balance and how to be deemed in current assets behaviour against company ‘s current liabilities.

To cognize the present investing of capital inside the concern is it procuring the hereafter anticipated flow or watercourses of returns and the strategic planning.

To cognize what should be the composing of the house ‘s assets and what should be the mix of the houses funding.

To cognize how net working direction will be help out in use of resources and how much production and gross revenues turnover is reduced at minimal degree of cost to give company equal profitableness.




The kirloskar Group is a portion of an technology pudding stone driving critical industries and are the innovators in the specialisation like technology, power building, excavation, agribusiness, industry and conveyance, oil and gas and environment protection with a scope of universe category industrial merchandises and prison guard services. This has six major group companies and its subordinates lead by the best technology and pull offing endowment in India and besides has involvement in Civic public-service corporation system and information engineering and communicating ( Kirloskar Pnuematics company Limited, 2011 ) .

Kirloskar Brothers Limited ( KBL )

Kirloskar Oil Engines Limited ( KOEL )

Kirloskar Pneumatics ‘ Company Limited ( KPCL )

Kirloskar Ferrous Industries Limited ( KFIL )

Kirloskar Chillers Pvt. Limited ( KCPL )

Kirloskar Middle East FZE Limited ( KMEF )

Joint ventures and subordinates

Kirloskar Ebara Pumps Limited ( KEPL )

Kirloskar Corrocoat Pvt. Limited ( KPCL )

Kirloskar Construction and Engineers Limited

Kolhapur Steel Limited

SPP Pumps Limited

Gondwana Engineers Pvt. Limited

About Kirloskar Pneumatics Company Limited ( KPCL )

The dean of Indian industry Late Shri. Santanarao.L. Kirloskar incorporated Kirloskar Pneumatics Company Limited ( KPCL ) on 27th March 1958. The company started its operations with the maker of Air Compressors and Pneumatics tools and shortly widened its concern in the maker of Air conditioning and infrigidation equipment, Process gas equipment and Hydraulic Power Transmission machinery, System Engineering and turnkey Undertakings. KPCL has its Head office and Factory at Hadapsar, Pune and one works at Saswad ( 20 Kms from Hadapsar ) and gross revenues office all over the universe ( Kirloskar Pnuematics company Limited, 2011 )

KPCL operations are subdivided into three major strategic concern units

ACD ( Air Compressor division ) , TRM ( Transmission Limited ) – Hadapsar

ACR & A ; PG ( Air conditioning, Refrigeration and Process Gas Division ) – Saswad

Road Railer Division – Nasik

Divisions and Merchandises

Air Compressor Division

Table 1

Reciprocating Compressor Business group

Rotary Compressor Business group

Centrifugal Compressor Business group

Land Support Unit Business group

1.Horizontal balanced, opposed Piston compressors and bundles

2.Vertical H2O cooled compressors and bundles

3.Compressors and expressers for railroad brake system

4.Reciprocated air cooled compressors

1. Electric screw compressors R1, R2, R3, R5 scope

2. Diesel engine Driven skid

3.Desel Portable compressors

4. Dry screw

1. Cooper turbo compressor shaper

2. Centrifugal air compressor engineered and packed by KPCL TA 2000, TA2020, TA 6000, TA 3000, TA 9000

1. Service Air Trolleys, SAT 300, SAT 650.

2.Nitrogen streetcars

3.Oxygen Streetcars

4. Mobile Air Charging vehicle

5. KG -5 ( 400 )

6.k4 HW 250

Air conditioning, Refrigeration and procedure gas system division

Table 2

Equipment concern group

Refrigeration undertaking concern group

Process gas concern group

Vapour soaking up hair-raisers

1.KC & A ; KCX series compressors

2.AC Series Compressors

3.Semi anchoritic Screw compressor “ Fu Sheng ”

1. Flake ice works HM – 10F/HM 15F

2. Water chilling works, Brine cooling works

3. Refrigeration bundles for refinery

4.Aircondition and infrigidation bundles for Naval for Naval ships

1.Natural compressed gas driven gas compressor bundles

2.CBW Screw compressor bundles

3.Gas goaded reciprocating bundles

4.CBW coal bed methane

1.Low force per unit area steam driven VA system

2. High force per unit area steam driven VA system

3.Direct fired VA System

4. Hot H2O driven VA system

Transmission division

Table 3

Railway concern group

Defence concern group

Windmill concern group

Grip cogwheels and pinion

Volt transmittal

Axle thrusts


1.Marine Gear box 509

2. Gear box for Naval offshore policing vehicle

3. Gear store for set downing ship armored combat vehicle Medium

4.Gear box big Combat vehicle

5. Hydro pneumatics suspension

250KW Gear box

1MW Gear box

Road Railor Division

Kirloskar Road Railor

Kirloskar Auto Railor

Mission and Values of KPCL

The mission of the company is to go no.1 in India in the field of Air, gas, infrigidation compressors and bundles, grip cogwheels and gear boxes and transmittal merchandises by supplying universe category merchandises and services with the best value to its clients. The company is doing thereon attempts to heighten the originative capablenesss of their employees and sellers by maintaining in head the best involvement of their interest holders. The ambiance of the company environment will be friendly and concentrate on the activities of the society ( Kirloskar Pnuematics company Limited, 2011 ) .


The company is abide with seven values as a steering way to their dealing, dialogue and interface with the interest holders ( clients, traders, providers, employers, fiscal establishments etc. )

Customer focal point

All activities and actions have focus to heighten internal/external client satisfaction.

Common Trust

To hold faith in our co-workers / colleagues being a bonafide individual on his working harmonizing to predefined procedure and systems.


Committedness to honour a promise, to accomplish a end /target for being responsible for given / accepted assignment with ultimate purpose of accomplishing the coveted consequence.

Continuous betterment

Bettering each and every system, method, process and procedure to cut down the clip, cost and complexness in concern activities and make overall satisfaction.


Managing the occupations, duties with accomplishments to accomplish the coveted consequence within the given clip, without holding a feel of duties.


Make a system, method and process to do it a on a regular basis adhered manner of workings.


Expressing in good spirit, without fright, one ‘s ain positions, without connotation to pique or diss the other individual

Awards & A ; Awards

State Level Energy Conservation and Management award ( 2008 )

This competition is organized by Maharashtra Energy Development Agency ( MEDA ) . The award was given at the custodies of Hon’ble Governor, Maharashtra State, His Excellency S.C. Jamir.

Award For Excellence ( 2008 )

KPCL receive this award from Federation of Cold Storage Association of India for meritable part & A ; distinguished service of KPCL in the field of proficient development of cold storages & A ; infrigidation industries.

National Award For Excellence In Energy Management ( 2008 )

KPCL received this award from Confederation of Indian Industry for Excellence in Energy Management at the custodies of Hon Mr. Dilip Walse Patil, Minister of Energy, Govt of Maharashtra.

National Energy Conservation Award ( 2008 )

2nd Prize in National Energy Conservation Competition-2008 in General class in a competition organized by Bureau of Energy Efficiency ( BEE ) under the Ministry of Power, India, at the manus of energy curate ( Shri. Sushil Kumar shinde, Govt. of India )

Best Kaizen Award ( 2008 )

Best Kaizen Award ” in State degree Kaizen competition organized by Confederation of Indian Industries ( CII )

Important Personalities

Table 4


Rahul. C. Kirloskar

Board Of Directors

Mr. Sanjay C. Kirloskar

Mr. Vikram S. Kirloskar

Mr. A. C. Mukherji

Mr. J. Y. Tekawade

Mr. P. S. Jawadekar

Mr. G. Krishna Rao

Mr. D. R. Swar

Mr. Sunil Shah Singh ( w.e.f. january 19, 2011 )

Company Secretary

Mr. Jitendra R. Shah

Pull offing Director

Aditya Kowshik

Vice President & A ; Finance Controller

Suhas S. Kolhatkar

1.6 Fiscal History ( INR Millions )

Table 5















PAT ( % )










Cash and Liquid Balances





Entire Gross Debt ( Unadjusted )





Shareholding Structure

Table 6

Particulars of keeping


Promoter and Promoter group


Public Shareholding


1.8 Business Overview

1.8.1 Compression Systems Segment

This section mostly comprises air compressors, infrigidation and gas compressors. The

Company ‘s capacity use over the past three old ages has been rather low at an norm of

about 45 % of its sum installed capacity.

Capacity Utilisation ( Nos. )

Table 7


Installed capacity


Utilisation ( % )

















Industry Analysis

India ‘s gas compaction industry specifically for CNG bundles is slated for a major growing as the authorities programs to spread out the metropolis gas distribution undertakings to over 300 Indian metropoliss. On the other manus, increasing export gross revenues of KPCL ‘s compressors is pulling more multinationals companies to India, thereby increasing competition. This section has immense growing potency, which will supply farther gross growing to the company.

1.8.2 Transmission Merchandises Segment

The merchandise portfolio includes rail grip cogwheels, gear box for air current turbines for the Marine and industrial applications. The capacity in this section has been to the full utilized.

Capacity Utilisation ( Nos. )

Table 8


Installed capacity


Utilisation ( % )

















KPCL ‘s installed capacity depends on merchandise mix, which in bend depends on the existent

demand for assorted merchandises from time-to-time and besides on availing of farm outing installations. Therefore, it is non executable for the company to bespeak the exact installed capacity.

Industry Analysis

Increasing demand for railroad turn overing stock and engineering up step represent significant growing chances in this sector and has opened up the planetary market for grip geartrain. For illustration, growing chances in the Marine gear box sector seem assuring as the Indian Navy has ambitious programs for ship acquisition along with engineering up step. However, competition from foreign companies has intensified due to a bead in custom responsibilities and opening up of new markets, and this may impact the borders.


Management is an art of expecting and fixing for hazards, uncertainnesss and get the better ofing obstructions. An indispensable stipulation for sound and consistent assets direction is set uping the sound and consistent assets direction policies covering fixed every bit good as current assets. In modern fiscal direction, efficient allotment of financess has a great range, in finance and net income planning, for the most effectual use of endeavor resources, the fixed and current assets have to be combined in optimal proportions.

Working capital in simple footings means the sum of financess that a company requires for financing its daily operations. Finance director should develop sound techniques of pull offing current assets in proper manner.

Working capital besides refers to the investing by the company in short footings assets such as hard currency, marketable securities. It is equal to the value of natural stuffs, workaˆ?inaˆ?progress, finished goods stock lists and histories receivable less histories collectible. Net working capital refers to the current assets less current liabilities.

Symbolically, it means,

Net Working capital = Current Assets- Current Liabilities.


The followers are some of the most of import definitions of Working capital:

1 ) Working capital is the difference between the influx and escape of financess. In other words it is the net hard currency influx.

2 ) Working capital represents the sum of all current assets. In other words it is the Gross working capital, it is besides known as Circulating capital or Current capital because current assets are revolving in their nature.

3 ) Working capital is defined as the surplus of current assets over current liabilities and commissariats. In other words it is the Net Current Assets or Net Working Capital.

4 ) Working capital is equal to the value of natural stuffs, workaˆ?inaˆ?progress, finished goods stock lists and histories receivable less histories collectible.

5 ) Working capital is that part of a house ‘s capital which is employed in short term operations.

6 ) Working Capital is the difference between resources in hard currency or readily exchangeable into hard currency ( Current Assets ) and organisational committednesss for which hard currency will shortly be required ( Current Liabilities ) .

Current assets represent Gross Working Capital. The surplus of current assets over current liabilities is Net Working Capital. Current assets consists of all stocks including finished goods, work in advancement, natural stuff, hard currency, marketable securities, histories receivables, stock lists, short term investings etc. These assets can be converted into hard currency within an accounting twelvemonth. Current liabilities represent the entire sum of short term debt which must be settled within one twelvemonth. They represent creditors, measures collectible, bank overdraft, outstanding disbursals, short term loans, etc.


Working capital is classified in different ways. The of import categorizations are described below ;

1.Classification on the footing of fiscal studies: -The information of working capital can be collected from Balance Sheet or Profit and Loss Account ; as such the working capital may be classified as follows:

Cash Working Capital – This is calculated from the information contained in net income and loss history. Cash working capital have great significance in recent old ages as it shows the adequateness of hard currency flow in concern. It is based on ‘Operating Cycle Concepts.

Balance Sheet Working Capital – The informations for Balance Sheet Working Capital is collected from the balance sheet.

2.Classification on the Basis of Variability – Gross Working Capital can be divided in two classs ( I ) permanent or fixed on the job capital, and ( two ) Temporary, Seasonal or variable on the job capital. Such type of categorization is really of import for fudging determinations.

( I ) Temporary Working Capital – Impermanent Working Capital is besides called as fluctuating or seasonal on the job capital. This represents extra investing needed during prosperity and favourable seasons. It increases with the growing of the concern. “ Impermanent on the job capital is the extra assets required to run into the fluctuations in gross revenues above the lasting degree. “ This can be calculated as follows:

Impermanent Working Capital = Total Current Assets – lasting Current Assetss

( two ) Permanent Working Capital – It is a portion of entire current assets which is non changed due to fluctuation in gross revenues. There is ever a minimal degree of hard currency, stock lists, and histories receivables which is ever maintained in the concern even if gross revenues are reduced to a lower limit. Amount of such investing is called as lasting working capital. “ Permanent Working Capital is the sum of working capital that persists over clip regardless of fluctuations in gross revenues. “ This is besides called as regular working capital.

3. Conceptual categorization: – Conceptual categorization is divided into two they are viz.

( I ) Quantitative Concept or Gross Concept: – Harmonizing to quantitative construct by Smith, the sum of working capital refers to ‘total of current assets ‘ agencies ‘circulating capital ‘ . Current assets are considered to be gross working capital. Gross Concept focuses on, optimal investing in current assets: Excessive investings impair house ‘s profitableness, as idle investing earns nil. Inadequate working capital can endanger solvency of the house because of its inability to run into its current demands. Therefore should be equal investing in current assets.

( two ) Qualitative Concept or Net Concept: – The qualitative construct refers to the beginnings of funding capital. Harmonizing to qualitative construct the sum of working capital refers to “ excess of current assets over current liabilities. ” L.J. Guthmann defined working capital as “ the part of a house ‘s current assets which are financed from long-run financess ” . It is the surplus of current assets over current liabilities so it is besides known as net construct.

The above can be summarized as follows:

( I ) Gross Working Capital = Total Current Assetss

( two ) Internet Working Capital = Excess of Current Assets over Current Liabilitiess

( three ) Working Capital Deficit = Excess of Current Liabilities over Current Assets.

Working capital refers to the sum of current assets which would stay if all current liabilities are paid Both constructs of working capital have their ain importance. “ If the aims is to mensurate the size and extent to which current assets are being used, ‘Gross construct ‘ is utile ; whereas in measuring the liquidness place of an undertaking ‘Net construct ‘ becomes pertinent and preferred. It is necessary to understand the significance of current assets and current liabilities for the significance of working capital, which is explained below

Current assets – “ Current assets have a short life span ” . These types of assets are engaged in current operation of a concern and usually used for short- term operations of the house during an accounting period i.e. within 12 months. The two of import features of current assets are ( one ) short life span, and ( two ) Swift transmutation into other signifier of assets. Cash balance may be held idle for a hebdomad or two, account receivable may hold a life span of 30 to 60 yearss, and stock lists may be held for 30 to 100 yearss. ”

Fitzgerald defined current assets as, “ hard currency and other assets which are expected to be converted in to hard currency in the ordinary class of concern within one twelvemonth or within such longer period as constitutes the normal operating rhythm of a concern. ”

Current liabilities – The house creates a Current Liability towards creditors ( Sellerss ) from whom it has purchased natural stuffs on recognition. This liability is besides known as histories collectible and shown in the balance sheet till the payment has been made to the creditors.

The claims or duties which are usually expected to maturate for payment within an accounting rhythm are known as current liabilities. These can be defined as “ those liabilities where settlement is moderately expected to necessitate the usage of bing resources decently distinctive as current assets, or the creative activity of other current assets, or the creative activity of other current liabilities ” .

Structure of Current Assets and Current Liabilitiess

Current Liabilitiess

Current Assetss

Bank Overdraft

Cash and Bank Balance


Inventories: Raw-Materials


Finished Goods

Outstanding Expenses

Spare Partss

Bills Collectible

Histories Receivabless

Short-run Loans

Bills Receivabless

Proposed Dividends

Accrued Income

Provision for Taxation, etc.

Prepaid Expenses

Short-run Investings

Circulation of Working Capital

The current assets and current liabilities are fluxing unit of ammunition in a concern like an electric current. However, “ The on the job capital plays the same function in the concern as the function of bosom in human organic structure. Working capital financess are generated and these financess are circulated in the concern. As and when this circulation stops, the concern becomes lifeless. It is because of this ground that he working capital is known as the go arounding capital as it circulates in the concern merely like blood in the human organic structure. ”

Figure No.1 picturing ‘Working Capital Cycle ‘ makes it clear that the sum of hard currency is obtained chiefly from issue of portions, adoption and operations. Cash financess are used to buy fixed assets, natural stuffs and used to pay to creditors. The natural stuffs are processed ; rewards and overhead disbursals are paid which in consequence produce finished goods for sale

The sale of goods may be for hard currency or recognition. In the former instance, hard currency is straight received while in ulterior instance hard currency is collected from debitors. Fundss are besides generated from operation and sale of fixed assets. A part of net income is used for payment of involvement, revenue enhancement and dividends while staying is retained in the concern. This rhythm continues throughout the life of the concern house.


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