An Indian Logistics Vision Economics Essay


Wars have been won or lost on the strength of logistics capableness or deficiency of it. Although rather an old construct, logistics has been going efficient merely since the globalisation moving ridge of the early 1990s and therefore, the concerns supported by it, worldwide, have been pushed for competitory balance-sheets, supplying consumers a better product/service and yet adding value to its investors.

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Triping intense competition, globalisation, coupled with liberalisation, forced both private and public houses to perpetrate themselves to doing available to their clients the right stuff of right status, at the right clip and topographic point at the lowest cost – be it a merchandise or a service.

The World Bank, in a recent study Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, has developed a Logistics Performance Index ( LPI ) that can function as a benchmarking tool for mensurating public presentation of concerns along a state ‘s logistics supply concatenation. The Bank survey asserts that states that are able to link to the planetary logistics web would non merely hold entree to vast new markets but besides remain a portion of the planetary trade growing. The study avers that it is non the income of states but their undergoing trade enlargement that determines their logistics efficiency, as the study shows that states with increasing trade ( imports and exports ) to GDP emerged as the out-performers on the LPI graduated table relation to their income degrees. It besides warns that those states whose links with the planetary

logistics concatenation are weak are bound to confront big and turning costs of exclusion from international trade. India trails behind China on of import indices such as imposts processs, overall substructure quality, international cargo, logistics competency and trailing of cargos, but is in front of the latter on the domestic logistics efficiency forepart.

Healthy economic growing in India is progressively supported by robust industrial growing. One of the comparatively lesser known but important sectors that support about all industrial activity – the logistics sector – is besides witnessing this growing as a follow through. However, non defying its importance and size ( INR 4 trillion ) , it has traditionally non been accorded the attending it deserves as a separate sector in itself.


LPI Mark



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The degree of inefficiency in logistics activities in the state has been really high across all manners. With the germinating concern environment making a strong demand pull for quality and efficient logistics services, nucleus issues around enabling substructure, regulative environment and the disconnected nature of the industry are being overcome bit by bit. The needed gait of efficiency and quality betterment will demand rapid development of capablenesss of logistics service suppliers. And with logistics being a service oriented sector, accomplishment development will emerge as a cardinal capableness while skill issues exist in changing grades in all sections of logistics ; those sections where the spreads are non merely broad but besides widening at a comparatively fast gait. The most terrible and immediate demand for accomplishment development is found to be in the route cargo and warehousing sections. India ‘s spend on logistics activities – equivalent to 13 per centum of its GDP is higher than that of the developed states. The cardinal ground for this is the comparatively higher degree of inefficiencies in the system, with lower norm hauling velocities, higher turnaround clip at ports and high cost of administrative holds being merely a few of the illustrations.

These inefficiencies have arisen over the old ages from a combination of a non-conducive policy environment, extended industry atomization and deficiency of good basic substructure. India ‘s indirect revenue enhancement government discouraged big centralised warehouses and led, over clip, to atomization in the repositing sector. At the same clip, the absence of a individual logistics ‘champion ‘ ( whether in signifier of a ministry or otherwise ) in the authorities ( or industry ) led to a disintegrated attack to development of the sector.


Logisticss Cost/GDP


13 %


9.90 %


10 %


11.40 %

Extensive atomization meant the incapacity of industry participants to develop the industry as a whole and hapless support substructure, such as roads, ports and telecom, led to a state of affairs where the chance to make value is limited.

However, much of this is altering with the authorities now showing a strong committedness towards supplying an enabling substructure and making contributing ordinances. There is important current and planned investing in substructure to the melody of ( INR 15 trillion ) over the following few old ages and an increased accent on public-private partnership. At the same clip, ordinances around rationalisation of revenue enhancement constructions and bar of overloading for illustration are making an environment of positive alteration.

Players now have the chance to leverage economic systems of graduated table, complemented with better substructure vitamin E, to supply incorporate logistics solutions which are cost effectual.

In add-on, the germinating concern landscape and increasing competition across industries, is making the demand for more efficient and dependable logistics services than what exist today

For illustration, rapid growing of organized retail and the demand to make out to the big untapped rural markets in India are asking development of strong back terminal and front terminal supply webs. Basically, a disconnected industry with low mean graduated table – and consequent limited investing and market development capableness – is worst placed to function these demands. It is non surprising hence that there is a frenetic gait of consolidation and organic growing that the industry is witnessing ( refer box and

While logistics service suppliers is fighting to maintain gait with the growing, logistics service users with limited or no outsourcing are happening it progressively hard and / or unwanted to pull off this non-core activity in-house. The consequence is a broad demand spread that is apparently widening much faster than it is being filled.

It is in this context that capableness development of logistics service suppliers assumes critical importance. While rapid development across all dimensions of organisational capableness will be required to accomplish and prolong demand growing, logistics being a service industry, manpower capablenesss assume extreme 5 importances. The sector presently employs about 40 million people, a figure that will lift quickly with exponential growing outlooks in the sector. 6 A expression at the financials of a set of 80 logistics companies in India across sectors reveals that manpower spends consist 8-10 per centum of overall gross revenues of the sector.

This approximately translates to about an INR 500 billion spend on logistics manpower in the state yearly. Merely about 13 -14 per centum of the overall work force costs are spent on non-salary, manpower development points ( public assistance, developing etc. ) . This portion for the unorganised companies would expectedly be much less.

As against this taking planetary logistics companies spend about 20 per centum of their employee outgo on non-salary points. This deficiency of focal point on developing manpower and accomplishments for the logistics sector has resulted in a important spread in the Numberss and quality of work force in the sector. This spread, unless addressed desperately, is likely to be a cardinal hindrance in the growing of the logistics sector in India, and in effect, could impact growing in industry and fabrication sectors as good.

This underscores the demand for placing countries where such work force and accomplishment spreads are critical, and developing focused action programs to better the state of affairs. In the following subdivision, we analyze each section of the Logistics sector in India to place the accomplishment gaps that exist in each. These spreads are so prioritized to place cardinal focal point countries, and the action that needs to be taken to bridge the spreads.

Elementss of Logisticss cost

aˆ? Transportation 35 %

aˆ? Inventories 25 %

aˆ? Losses 14 %

aˆ? Boxing 11 %

aˆ? Handling and Warehousing 9 %

aˆ? Customers ‘ shopping 6 %

Logistics- Global scenario

The Global Business Scenario

Global Customer

Global Fabrication: No Product produced in one state or by one company

Outsourcing to LCC ‘s gained gait

Vertical Integration to Network of Companies

Material, Information and Funds need to travel across continents

Competition is defined by efficiency,

synchronism, and competences in the web


Indian Supply Chain and Logistics Industry is more than USD 100 Billion in size and is the anchor of Indian Economy. Our industry is turning at a rate of 8-10 % yearly and has been a important subscriber in the growing and development of the Indian economic system. In the close hereafter, Traditional Logistics services like Transportation and Warehousing would go on to growing at a good rate. However, the large ticket growing would come from the Value Added Logistics services in the close hereafter.

At present, Outsourced Logistics histories for merely tierce of the entire Logistics market in India, which is a significantly lower proportion vis-a-vis the developed markets. Growth in this industry is presently being driven in India by over USD 300 billion worth of substructure vitamin E investings, the phased debut of VAT, the development of organized Retail and Agro-processing industries, along with a strong fabrication growing. In add-on, we expect strong Foreign Direct Investment inflows in the Indian markets, which would take to increased market chances for suppliers of Third-Party Logistics in India. Therefore, India possesses significant chances for growing in the Supply Chain & A ; Logisticss industry in the coming old ages, notwithstanding the impermanent jar due to the economic lag.

The Indian Situation:

India is being touted as the land of chance for logistics service suppliers all over the universe. The demand for logistics services in India has been mostly driven by the singular growing of the economic system, projected to turn at 9-10 per cent in following few old ages. The Indian logistics market, valued at $ 14 billion a twosome of old ages ago, is expected to turn at a CAGR ( compounded one-year growing rate ) of 7-8 per cent. It is felt that the growing will go on, and might even scale newer highs, as the economic system is sing a retail roar with Western companies such as Metro, Wal-Mart planning to get down operation in this state, and big local retail merchants such as Shoppers Stop, Pantaloon, RPG and Big Bazaar planning to spread out their operations in smaller


But, so, logistics direction in India is excessively complex, with 1000000s and 1000000s retail merchants providing to the demands of more than one billion people and the substructure yet to develop to provide decently to a turning economic system.

The hapless status of roads translates straight to higher vehicle turnover, which in bend pushes up the operating costs and reduces efficiency. The decreased efficiency is passed on the logistics service suppliers, with transit costs accounting for about 40 per cent of the entire logistics cost. The National Highways are being upgraded but these main roads account for a meager two per cent of the entire route web in the state.

There are other jobs such as complex revenue enhancement Torahs and deficient technological AIDSs. The disconnected market increases costs due to immense paperwork and the single truck proprietors, ruling the market, are unable to contract straight with clients, with the consequence cargo consolidators and agents take a committee to bring forth concern for the truck proprietors. Merely about a few thousand vehicles out of a sum of several 1000000s have tracking system. The usage of IT, therefore, is limited.

Despite these challenges, the state ‘s logistics industry is set to turn. Industries such as chemicals and pharmaceuticals, metals, FMCG, cement, fabrics and cresting it all the retail section have been identified as the top subscribers to the jutting growing of the economic system and hence to logistics grosss. The new coevals corporate are looking to outsource non-traditional logistics demands such as contrary logistics, stock list direction, order processing, distribution, and labeling and packaging.


Newly developed electronic trade good markets, such as Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd. ( MCX ) has played an instrumental function in the logistics. Creation and development of warehouses followed the outgrowth of these markets or exchanges.

MCX ‘s indirect direction arm National Bulk Handling Corporation Ltd ( NBHC ) , a national -level end-to-end solutions supplier in repositing, majority handling, rating and review, trade good attention, pest direction and indirect direction of trade goods, is playing a cardinal function in taking logistics and, therefore, markets closer to the manufacturers. Lodging to their authorization, trade good derived functions markets have proved to be highly good to husbandmans.

The spread between monetary values ( many of the trade goods ) in the post-harvest season and those in any thin season has narrowed down significantly over the past few old ages. Earlier, during the pre-futures epoch, when monetary values would slouch instantly after crop, husbandmans

would hold to do distress gross revenues. But today, with the chance to sell for a better monetary value at hereafters markets, they stand to profit tremendously.

While agriculturists can hive away ( keep back ) their green goods in NBHC-monitored tungsten warehouses in expectancy of recognizing higher monetary values later, they can avail of loans against warehouse grosss ( WRs ) , to assist them transport on with their harvest operations for the following season.

In the few old ages of its being, NBHC has built a instead strong and broad logistics web with professionally managed scientific warehouses armed with market-approved quality-testing techniques. And this has attracted investors and participants from assorted backgrounds, making better linkages among the markets.

The development of logistics by making good warehouse substructure would certainly travel a long manner in raising husbandmans ‘ incomes. Such substructure is expected to acquire a bonus with the recent transition of the Warehousing ( Regulatory & A ; Development ) Bill and its effectual execution.

Both public and private endeavors ‘ engagement in equal steps is required for developing logistics and bettering supply concatenation direction. Very significantly, the lesson for private investors is that it is non merely about making efficient concern to boom in the logistics sector, but besides about researching and revamping other countries by manner of deviating energy, costs and clip that were otherwise wasted in a weak logistics system.

India – The Global Manufacturing Hub:

Manufacturing hubs emerge due to a procedure of agglomeration. Because of agglomeration, a disproportional rush of fabrication is attracted to locations with a lower pay cost or higher market entree or both. Therefore when fabrics fabricating shifted from the US North East to the US South, so to Japan, Korea and now eventually to China and India, it fits a predictable form. The same is true when car industry shifted from Detroit to Mexico across the order and Brazil, so once more to South East Asia. The displacement from west to east is apparent in I industry after industry. For case, about two- tierce of universe fibre production comes from Asia today, about

one-quarter of the universe fuel demand now originates in non-Japan Asia, compared to merely one-tenth in seventiess. To take a more recent illustration China, Thailand and India have contributed to 36 % of the vehicle production between 2001 and 2004.

After the IT roar, a fabrication revolution has been good underway in the Indian economic system, spurred on by the increasing presence of multinationals, scaling up of operations by the domestic companies and spread outing domestic market. The sector has been averaging 9 per cent in the last four old ages ( 2004-08 ) , with a record 12.3 per cent in 2006-07.

India ‘s fabrication base, which is the fourth-largest among emerging economic systems, is among the fastest growth and has seen more investings as a proportion of gross domestic merchandise than any state except China.

Consequently, makers from across the universe are transforming India — which has all the needed accomplishments in procedure, merchandise, and capital technology. ” Every major company has India on its radio detection and ranging screen, ” And the figure of companies, crossing diverse industries, be aftering to do India their planetary hub for host of operations has merely been increasing by the twenty-four hours.

Cummins is doing India its fabrication hub for freshly developed line of generator sets ; Samsung plans to do its fabrication works in Chennai its planetary hub ; Ford is doing India its fabrication hub for engine fabrication ; Suzuki and Hyundai are doing India the fabrication and exports hub for little autos. In fact, all the top five telecom makers have set up fabricating installation in India.

Recent Tendencies in Logistic:

The planetary logistics industry was valued at US $ 3.5 trillion in 2007, whereas US logistics industry size was around US $ 900 billion, 25 % of the planetary logistics industry.

Logisticss costs in India are estimated to be about 13 % of the GDP, which comes to around US $ 94 billion in 2006-07. However, India ‘s disbursement on logistics industry is much higher than the developed economic systems like the US ( 9.5 % ) and Japan ( 10.5 % ) .


National Highway Development Project ( NHDP ) , US $ 13 billion, 1998-2007.

Four/six laning of the main road linking Bombay,

Delhi, Calcutta and Madras

North-South and East-West corridors ( NS-EW ) ,

Kashmir to Kanyakumari and Silchar to Porbandar.

The terminal to stop conveyance procedure to be optimized by commanding lading densenesss through packaging and palletizing criterions, and lading and droping Facilities mechanization.

Slow velocities, traffic congestion, high wear and tear of vehicles are some of the jobs

Air Cargo:

Beginning: Internet

Air conveyance sector contributes over 0.2 % to the state ‘s GDP at changeless monetary values ( 1999-2000 Prices ) . Transport sector ‘s part to the GDP has been tautening up over the last twosome of old ages, largely because of the turning economic activities in the state.

Domestic air lading traffic has been turning at CAGR of 12.80 % from 2001-02 to 2006-07, whereas international air lading traffic has been traveling at CAGR of 13 % during the same period. During 2006-07, entire air lading traffic is estimated to be over 1.56m tones against 1.4m tones during 2005-06, registering a growing rate of 14.65 % .

Harmonizing to the Planning Commission, India ‘s air lading motions would turn at over CAGR of 11.5 % from 2007-08 to 2011-12. Riding high on export of treasures and jewelry, particular chemicals and high-value pharmaceuticals, international air lading traffic at all Indian airdromes have been turning quickly.

The six major airdromes carry 88 % of the entire air lading

Devil dog:

Huge coastline of 7,517 kilometers handles 95 % of foreign trade

12 major ports and 184 other ( minor and intermediate ) ports

Traffic in major ports: 2002-03 – 313 million tones

Private sector engagement is talked about

Marine conveyance sector contributes over 0.2 % to the state ‘s GDP at changeless monetary values ( 1999 – 2000 monetary values ) . Transport sector ‘s part to the GDP has been tautening up over the last twosome of old ages, largely because of the turning economic activities in the state. Transporting industry plays a important function in the Indian economic system. India has 12 major and 187 minor/intermediate ports along its coastline of around 7,517km. The fleet strength at the terminal of December 2006 was 774 vass with 8.42m Gross Registered Tonnage ( GRT ) .

Ports serve as the gateways to the international trade in India. Major ports in India together have handled 463.84m tones of lading in 2006-07, a growing of 9.51 % against the same period of the old twelvemonth. The petroleum-oil-lubricants ( POL ) accounted for 33.38 % of the entire traffic at major ports during April-March 2007, while Fe ore constituted 17.37 % , coal 12.98 % , container traffic 15.84 % , fertilizer 3.04 % , and others 17.49 % .

Harmonizing to the Planning Commission, India ‘s transporting fleet strength will be increased up to 15m GRT ( as per the 3rd mark ) by the terminal of 2011-12, with an estimated investing of US $ 17.7 billion. The port throughput will increase up to 1,008m tones, turning at a CAGR of 10.96 % from 2007-08 to 2011-12.


( Beginning: Wikipedia: hypertext transfer protocol: // )

The program by the Indian Railways to develop Logistics Parks [ ‘hubs ‘ in supply concatenation idiom ] is a good 1. It has the possible to streamline and optimise the supply concatenation and cut down the supply concatenation costs. The service construct, service bringing and substructure have to be designed really good for the Railways Logistics Parks to add value to the supply concatenation.

For the Railways Logistics Park to add value to the supply concatenation, at least one portion of the transit, either the entrance or outgoing, has to be by rail.

The Indian Railways would hold to present advanced train services, so that clients shift to inveigh from route and usage trains for either the entrance or surpassing from the hub. Presently about 80 % of the merchandises in India move by route. One simple invention could be to present time-tabled container trains, time-tabled package trains etc. It is indispensable to hold a few time-tabled cargo trains, because dependability in a supply concatenation is a large cost rescuer [ reduces stock list degrees, improves client service ]

If the transit, incoming and surpassing, is by route, so the Logistics Park adds no value to the supply concatenation. It makes more sense, from a supply concatenation point of view, to hold the hub on the main road, near to the metropolis beltway, outside the metropolis bounds, outside the octroi bounds and outside any ‘No Entry ‘ zone. It so makes more sense for the Railways to move as a landlord and construct a Mall or Hypermarket. A Mall or Hypermarket would give much better leases and higher returns on the land that the Railways ain.

Third Party logistics participants in India

Market is extremely fragmented with big figure of little participants

Rail is province tally while teamsters are frequently family-run

Complex concern environment, eg. revenue enhancement rates differ between states, cultural differences

Poor repositing and transit substructure

Foreign logistics rivals are Exel, Danzas, Bax

Global, TNT, Panalpina – chief gross from cargo send oning

Logisticss market is expected to turn by more than 20 % over the following 3 old ages as against the present rate of 12-15 %

Beginning: Scope, Indian Logistics Industry, January 2002

Advantage India

One one-fourth of the universe ‘s young person live in India

54 % of the Indian population is less than 25 year of age

2nd Largest English speech production work force

Focus on Higher Education, Supportive authorities policies

Second largest pool of technically qualified cognition workers

IPR Torahs in topographic point

Future of Logistics – The Indian Scenario:

Opportunities in India:

Leverage the IT & A ; R & A ; D advantage

India ‘s Share of Industry is Very Low

Global Competitiveness in Manufacturing is a National Imperative

Industry Supply Chain

Leverage IT In Logistics package Development

KBLP Business Model

Indian Retail Industry

The Agri Supply Chain

Indian Food Service Industry

Service Chains Provide Immense Opportunities

Construction SCM Headlines

Health Care Logistics

India ‘s logistics sector attracted investings deserving Rs. 23,200 crore in first half of 2008, harmonizing to a survey by Assocham. It outclassed some of the major sectors including air power ( Rs 20,890 call ) , metals and excavation ( Rs 8500 chromium ) and consumer durable goodss ( Rs 6000 chromium ) among others.

Among the factors cited by analysts for the rapid growing of Indian logistics include the growing of organized retail industry, trade good markets, growing in fabrication and development of Particular Economic Zones. ( SEZ ) .

Harmonizing to a study by Cushman and Wakefield, existent estate advisers, Indian logistics industry is expected to turn yearly at the rate of 15 to 20 % , making grosss of about $ 385 bn by 2015. Market portion of organized logistics participants is besides expected to duplicate to about 12 % during the same period.

The study said about 110 logistics Parkss spread over about 3,500 estates at an estimated cost of $ 1 bn are expected to be operational and an estimated 45 mn sq foot of warehousing infinite with an investing of $ 500 manganese is expected to be developed by assorted logistics companies by 2012.

A big figure of upcoming SEZs have necessitated the development of logistics for the domestic market every bit good as for planetary trade.

Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Hyderabad have become preferable locations for logistics Parkss. These locations are characterized by first-class port, rail, and route connectivity and are witnessing important investing in substructure. Eight logistics parks with an approximative investing of $ 200 manganese are 600 estates of land around Mumbai.

Harmonizing to industry analysts, about all logistics participants are in the procedure of puting up warehouses, container cargo Stationss, inland container terminals, logistics Parkss, distribution centres and other installations to tap the trade chances fuelled by revolution in the retail, ports etc.

Demand for warehouses and logistics services are expected to speed up farther due to increase in foreign trade and the approaching Maha Mumbai Special Economic Zone. Warehouse leases in Panvel are expected to increase by 15 to 20 % over the following two old ages.

Proximity to textile and auto-component industry bunchs and other fabricating units has made Kolkata a major economic Centre. Ten Particular Economic Zones ( SEZs ) in the propinquity of Kolkata have received in-principal blessings. This will ensue in major demand for logistics in this part.

There are programs for 4 logistics Parkss spread across about 400 estates. Centers like Haldia, Falta, Pargana, Dankuni, Kharagpur, Bantala and Durgapur are expected to witness significant logistics activities in the close hereafter.

Five logistics Parkss are being set up in Hyderabad, spread across 220 estates and about 10 manganeses sq foot of warehouse infinite coming up by 2012. It scores high as a logistics finish as it provides first-class connectivity to big markets in southern and western India and has established bunchs of fabric and technology houses, every bit good as an of import Centre for the pharmaceutical industry.


The logistics industry in India is germinating quickly and it is the interplay of substructure, engineering and new types of service suppliers that will specify whether the industry is able to assist its clients cut down their logistics costs and supply effectual services ( which are besides turning ) . Coordination across assorted authorities bureaus requires blessing from multiple ministries and is a route block for multi modal conveyance in India


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