American Regime – Philippine Literature Essay Sample

Historical Background
June 12. 1898-Independence twenty-four hours
Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo-the first president of the Philippine Republic Fil-American was resulted in the licking of Gen. Miguel Malvar in 1903 The Peace Movements started a early as 1900

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3 Popular Newspapers
1. EL NUEVO DIA ( The New Day ) – Sergio Osmena
2. EL GRITO DEL PUEBLO ( The Call of the Nation ) – Pascual Poblete 3. EL RENACIMIENTO ( The Rebirth ) – Rafael Palma

Plaies:
1. KAHAPON. NGAYON AT BUKAS – Aurelio Tolentino
2. TANIKALANG GINTO – Juan Abad
3. MALAYA – Tomas Remigio
4. WALANG SUGAT – Severino Reyes

3 GROUPS OF WRITERS THAT CONTRIBUTED TO PHILIPPINE LITERATURE DURING THIS PERIOD A. Writers in Spanish – honouring Rizal and other heroes
B. Writers in Tagalog – conditions of the state. one’s native lingua C. Writers in English – imitation of American subjects and methods

A. LITERATURE IN SPANISH
Cecilio Apostol
wrote verse forms for Rizal. Jacinto. Mabini & A ; all other heroes
A RIZAL
Fernando Ma. Guerrero
shared with Apostol the reign in Balagtasan
book “CRISALIDAS” – black. wooly caterpillar
“INVOCACION A RIZAL” – June 19. 1901
Jesus Balmori
Batikuling
“Remembrance and Forgetfulness” – argument
Poet Laureate in Spanish
Manuel Bernabe
Lyric Poet
OLVIDO ( Forgetfulness )
Claro M. Recto
Nobility of Speech and subject
Book “BAJO LOS COCOTEROS” ( Under the Coconut Trees )
Other Writers in Spanish
Adelina Gurrea
First adult female poet in the Philippines
Zobel Prize- EL NIDO ( The Nest )
Isidro Marpori
4 Books “AROMAS DE ENSUENO” ( Scents of Dreams )
Macario Adriatico
Legend of Mindoro “LA PUNTA DE SALTO” ( The Topographic point of Origin ) Epifanio Delos Santos
Don Panyong
Good Leader and Biographer
Pedro Aunario
DECALOGO DEL PROTECCIONISMO

B. FILIPINO LITERATURE
FLORANTE AT LAURA of Francisco Balagtas
Urbana AT FELISA of Modesto De Castro

Julian Cruz Balmaceda ( 3 Kinds of Tagalog Poets )
1. Poet of the Heart
2. Poet of Life
3. Poet of the Phase

Celebrated Novelists:
Lope K. Santos
Novelist. poet and writer and grammarian covered three periods of Tagalog literature – American. Japanes and the Contemporary period “Father of National Language Grammar”
Writers call him “Apo”
BANAAG AT SIKAT ( chef-d’oeuvre )
Jose Corazon De Jesus
Huseng Batute
“Poet of Love”
ANG ISANG PUNONGKAHOY ( chef-d’oeuvre )
Amado V. Hernandez
Makata nanogram mga Manggagawa
ISANG DIPANG LANGIT. BAYANG MALAYA. MUNTING LUPA. ANG PANDAY ( chef-d’oeuvre ) Valeriano Hernandez Pena
Known as Tandang Anong
“Kuntil Butil” – write name
NENA AT NENENG ( chef-d’oeuvre )
Inigo Ed Regalado
“Sumpong” ( caprice ) of his pen
narrator. novelist. correspondent

Tagalog Drama:
Severino Reyes
Father of Tagalog Drama
“Walang Sugat”
Aurelio Tolentino
“Luhang Tagalog” ( chef-d’oeuvre )
“Kahapon. Ngayon at Bukas”
Hermogenes Ilagan
“Campana Ilagan”
Patricio Mariano
“Ninay”
“Anak nanogram Dagat” ( chef-d’oeuvre )
Julian Cruz Balmaceda
“Bunganga nanogram Pating”

Tagalog Short Story
Mga Kwentong Ginto
published in 1936
Alejandro Abadilla. Clodualdo del Mundo
50 Kwentong Ginto ng 50 Batikang Kuwentista
published in 1939
Pedrito Reyes
Parolang Ginto at Talaang Bughaw
Alejandto Abadilla

Other Forms of Literature
ILOCANO LITERATURE
Pedro Bukaneg
Father of Ilocano Literature
“Bukanegan” – Balagtasan
Claro Caluya
Prince of Ilocano poets
Poet and Novelist
Leon Pichay
Best Bukanegero
Poet. novelist. short narrative author. playwright and litterateur

PAMPANGO LITERATURE
Juan Crisostomo Soto
Father of Kapampangan Literature
“Crisotan” – Balagtasan
Aurelio Tolentino
Ngapon. Ngeni at Bukas

VISAYAN LITERATURE
Eriberto Gumban
Father of Visayan Literature
Magdalena Jalandoni
Ang Mga Tunuk San Isa Ca Bulaclac

C. . PHILIPPINE LITERATURE IN ENGLLISH

3 Time Frames
1. Time period of Re-orientation ( 1898-1910 )
2. Time period of Imitation ( 1910-1925 )
3. Time period of Self-Discovery ( 1925-1941 )

Time period OF RE ORIENTATION
August 13. 1898
English as a literary vehicle came with the American Occupation 1900
English came to be used as a medium of direction in the public schools. 1908
The primary and intermediate classs were utilizing English
UP was founded

Two Periodicals
El Renacimiento
founded in Manila in 1901
Rafael Palma
Philippines Free Press
established in Manila in 1905
R. McCullough Dick and D. Theo Rogers

Poetry
1907
SURSUMCORDA by Justo Juliano ( first work
published in English )
1909
MY MOTHER and AIR CASTLES by Jan F. Salazar
TO MY LADY IN LAOAG by Proceso Sebastian

Time period OF IMITATION
1919
UP College Folio published the plants of the First Filipino Writers in English

Writers of UP College Folio
Fernando Maramag ( the best editorial author of this period )
Juan F. Salazar
Jose M. Hernandez
Vicente del Fierro
Francisco M. Africa
Victoriano Yamzon

Essaies
Carlos P. Romulo. Jorge C. Bocobo. Mauro Mendez and Vicente Hilario their essays were genuinely scholarly characterized by soberness. substance and construction

Ignacio Manlapaz. Godefredo Rivera. Federico Mangahas. Francisco B. Icasiano. Salvador P. Lopez. Jose Lansang and Amando G. Dayrit they introduced the informal essay. unfavorable judgment and the journalistic column. They spiced their work with wit. humor and sarcasm.

Short Narratives
Dead Stars
written by Paz Marquez Benitez in early 1920’s
stand out as a theoretical account of flawlessness in character word picture. local colour. secret plan and message.

Newspapers and Periodicals
The Bulletin
The Philippines Herald ( 1920 )
The Philippine Review
The Mugwump
The Rising Philippines and Citizens
The Philippine Education Magazine 1924

Few of the Writers
1910: Bernardo P Garcia
1917: Eulogio B. Rodriguez
1919: Paz Marquez Benitez
1920: Marcelo de Gracea Concepcion
1920: Procopio L. Solidum
1921: Lorenzo E. Paredes
1921: Zoilo M. Galang
1924: Eliseo Quirino and Vicente Hilario
1924: Rodolfo Dato
1924: Carlos P. Romulo
1925: Zoilo M. Galang

Time period OF SELF-DISCOVERY AND GROWTH

Poetry
Jose Garcia Villa
The first to interrupt away from the conventional signifiers and subjects of Philippine Poetry placed the Philippines on the literary map with the publication of his books in the U. S.

Some of the Hagiographas
1925: The Philippine Writers Association
1926: Manila: A Collection of Poetries
1932: Bamboo Flute
1934: Moon Shadows on the Water
1934: An English-German Anthology of Filipino
1936: My Book of Verses
1937: First Leaves
1939: Nuance
1940: Like the Molave and Other Poems
1940: Many Voices
1941: Poems

Short Sory
1927: Paz B. Benitez published her first anthology of Filipino short narratives entitled FILIPINO LOVE STORIES 1929: Jose Garcia Villa published Philippine Short Narratives
1930: Jose Garcia Villa’s Mir-in-isa won first topographic point in The Age Press short narrative composing competition 1932: Zoilo M. Galang published his first volume of short narrative entitled narratives of the Philippines

The Commonwealth Literary Contest awarded foremost value to HOW MY BROTHER LEON BROUGHT HOME A WIFE by Manuel Arguilla.

Essaies and other Prose Styles

Noteworthy authors of essays
a. Political. societal brooding essays – Federico Mangahas. Salvador P. Lopez. Pura S. Castrence. Vicente Albano Pacis. Ariston Estrada and Jose A. Lansang. B. Critical essays – Salvador P. Lopez. I. V. Mallari. Ignacio Manlapaz. Jose Garcia Villa. Arturo B. Rotor. and Leopoldo Y. Yabes. c. Personal or Familiar essays – F. B. Icasiano. Alfredo E. Litiatco. Solomon V. Arnaldo. Amando G. Dayrit and Consuelo Gar.

Some of noteworthy plants
1940: Literature and Society
1940: The Filipino Way of Life
1941: From My Nipa Hut
August 16. 1941: I Am A Filipino

Biography
1935: I. P. Caballero and Marcelo de Gracia Concepcion wrote about Quezon 1938: The Great Malayan by Carlos Quirino
1940: Mallari’s The Birth of Discontent

History
1937: The Brief History of the Philippine Islands by Teofilo del Castillo

Publications
The Philippine Free Press provided the first inducements to Filipino authors.

The Drama
Daughters for sale and other dramas by Carlos P. Romulo
The Radiant Symbol by Jorge C. Bocobo
The Husband of Mrs. Cruz and A Daughter of Destiny by Vidal A. Tan The Cil Lamp and The Earthquake Augusto C. Catanjal
The Waves by Hilarion Vibal
The Land of Our Fathers by Severino Montano
Panday Pira. The Cannon Maker by Jose M. Hernandez
13 Plaies by Wilfredo Ma. Guerrero

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