Pulling on a figure of recent research surveies, this study aims to analysis the course of study of Hong Kong English linguistic communication. This article presents an analysis of the assorted phases of the course of study determination doing procedure and what the instructors teach and the scholars learn. The ground for making this study is measuring the procedure of execution of the course of study to the linguistic communication learning to the scholars to larn English. And the intent of this study is entree to the course of study stuffs that are used in implementing this course of study, and concludes with some deductions for instruction, teacher instruction and course of study.
Presently, there are an increasing figure of pupils who want to analyze an extra linguistic communication, and many scholars focus on the lessons which related to the course of study of learning. The instructors need to hold the impression of how to carry on the lesson. This impression is designed based on the course of study. “ A course of study is an look of sentiment on the nature of linguistic communication and acquisition ; it acts as a usher for both instructors and scholars by supplying some ends to be attained ” quoted from Hutchinon and Waters ( 1987 ) . Through the communicative course of study, the assorted course of study types are really of import. They are used to form schoolroom teaching method expeditiously. Furthermore, a communicative course of study is either an effort to develop a model for a general linguistic communication class, or focal points on communicating within a restricted scene ( Richards. 2001 ) . In Hong Kong, from the first twelvemonth of primary school, most Cantoness-speaking pupils study English as a 2nd linguistic communication. During the history of instruction in Hong Kong, the activity attack was so replaced by the notional-functional communicative attack in the early 1980s, which in bend gave manner to task-based acquisition. Task-based acquisition was officially introduced through the Targets and Target Related Assessment strategy in 1990, which later evolved into the Target Oriented Curriculum ( TOC ) in 1993. The TOC task-based model was so adapted and incorporated into the Syllabus for English Language ( Primary 1-6 ) ( Curriculum Development Council 1997 ) . The current course of study usher for the English linguistic communication topic in Hong Kong, drafted on the footing of broad audience with cardinal stakeholders in 1999-2000, has entrenched the construct of task-based acquisition as the nucleus conceptual model for the course of study ( Adamson & A ; Davison, 2003 ) . The Hong Kong English linguistic communication course of study like English Language Curriculum Guide in primary 1-6 is one of the series prepared by the Hong Kong course of study Development council for usage in primary schools. The Curriculum Development Council is an consultative organic structure giving recommendations to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government on all affairs associating to curriculum development for the school system from kindergarten to sixth signifier. It is written in support of the English linguistic communication instruction key larning country course of study usher, which puts Forth a coherent, flexible English linguistic communication instruction course of study model that meets the varied demands, involvements and abilities of scholars and sets the chief way for the acquisition and instruction of English linguistic communication for the nine old ages of basic instruction in Hong Kong. The course of study non merely can assist the instructors to put up chances to interact with the scholars for larning the mark linguistic communication expeditiously, but besides can help instructors to better lineation in the communicative course of study models and in order to make the involvements for the pupils. The instructors can understand the failing of the pupils through the survey. The course of study of English linguistic communication instruction in Hong Kong is a modern, speaking-centred and to assist the scholars use English of course and give them assurance to utilize English efficaciously. It provides in item the Learning Targets and Objectives for Key Stages 1 and 2, and elaborates pedagogical rules and recommendations conducive to larning English as a 2nd or foreign linguistic communication. This course of study usher contains the larning aims: linguistic communication signifiers and communicative maps affecting vocabulary, communicative maps, text types and grammar points and constructions ; linguistic communication accomplishments which contain hearing, speech production, composing, reading accomplishments and linguistic communication development schemes ; attitudes specific to English linguistic communication acquisition ; generic accomplishments and values and attitudes. It besides aims to supply guidelines, learning thoughts, suggestions and theoretical accounts to advance effectual acquisition, instruction and appraisal patterns, and to assist primary school principals and instructors plan, develop and implement their ain school-based English Language course of study.
Position of English linguistic communication instruction in the school course of study
English linguistic communication instruction is one of the eight Key Learning Areas- in the school course of study. As a Key Learning Area, English Language Education aims to supply primary school scholars with a broad scope of contexts and larning experiences to develop their English linguistic communication proficiency, better their personal and rational development and extend their apprehension of other civilizations through the English medium. Most of people in Hong Kong speak Cantonese, most primary school instructors teach in Cantonese, in the universities, chiefly in English as medium of direction. Contemporary school course of study reform in Hong Kong could be seen an invention, the chief subject is the execution of course of study aims. They develop the potency of every kid in the future become independent-minded and social-aware grownups, so that they have the cognition, accomplishments and attitudes to take the whole life, and do positive parts to the society. The TOC Program of Study for English Language ( Curriculum Development Council 1994:4 ) set out the purposes for the topic as follow: The English Language course of study in primary schools aims to assist the scholars lay a good foundation in larning English, paving the manner for independent and womb-to-tomb acquisition and effectual communicating of cognition, thoughts, values, attitudes and experience. It is built on bing good patterns, with accents on learner-centered and task-based acquisition, advancing a balanced usage of attacks appropriate to the demands and involvements of 2nd or foreign linguistic communication scholars. For illustration, Adamson & A ; Davison ( 2003 ) reference that task-based acquisition was seen as necessitating a important displacement of teaching method ‘from teacher-centered to student-centered, from textbook-based to task-based instruction and from summational appraisal to formative appraisal ‘ . In the current primary English course of study in Hong Kong, instructors are advised to do usage of different genres in carry oning command lessons and a figure of synergistic task-like activities are recommended such as focal point spelling, losing punctuation, and image command. The development of a school-based English linguistic communication course of study may include re-adjusting the acquisition purposes, changing the organisation of the contents, adding optional surveies or accommodating acquisition, instruction and appraisal schemes. School-based course of study development involves the coaction among all stakeholders in the procedure of planing, implementing and continuously bettering acquisition, instruction and appraisal, in line with both cardinal policies and the demands of the schools and their scholars. This course of study is taught within a mainstream environment. Teachers are encouraged to heighten scholars ‘ experience through: providing ample chances and a conductive environment for the acquisition and pattern of linguistic communication signifiers, communicative ability, and linguistic communication accomplishments in meaningful contexts ; iˆ doing extended usage of a assortment of text types to develop critical thought and advance the development of acquisition and linguistic communication development schemes, values and attitudes to heighten effectual, independent and womb-to-tomb acquisition.
Analysis the chief organizing rules underlying the English course of study
This course of study was dramatic contrast to the old course of study which had focused on the four accomplishments of hearing, reading, composing and talking. The TOC course of study was organized around undertakings which were designed to run into the demands of single pupils the mark and task-based attack was develop to promote a leaner-centered, process-oriented constructivist position of acquisition, exemplified by the five cross-curricular rules of larning promoted by TOC: problem-solving, logical thinking, asking, pass oning and gestating. ( Adamson & A ; Davison, 2003 ) . They found the communicative attack promulgated in the 1981 English Syllabus ( Curriculum Development Council, 1981 ) had non been developed on the footing of any research on linguistic communication instruction and acquisition in the local context. This course of study set up English learning guidelines and sketch the scope, deepness and general procedure in English instruction and learning method. They design this course of study by be aftering a serious of communicative activities with certain standards. Markee ( 1997:46 ) argues that ‘curriculum invention is a managed procedure of development alteration whose chief merchandises are learning stuffs, methodological accomplishments, pedagogical values that are perceived as new by possible adoptive parents. ‘ Adamson & A ; Davison ( 2003 ) references that curriculum invention is peculiarly debatable, given that it is clearly a complex and synergistic procedure with different degrees of execution required ( see Figure 1 below ; Tong, Adamson and Che 2000: 146, adapted from Johnson 1989 ) .
Harmonizing to the diagram, in the course of study invention in Hong Kong primary school, the three key stakeholders in course of study decision-making other than the policy-makers and course of study developers are the text edition authors, the instructors and the scholars ( Adamson & A ; Davison, 2003 ) . Teachers play an of import function of category activities, linguistic communication resource individual, stuffs developer and assessor. The instructor must hold the ability of utilizing installations which can back up larning through interacting with scholars, and supply counsel to assist them build cognition, and develop accomplishments, positive values and attitudes ; they besides have the head of invention that can originate advanced curricular alterations and contribute to the development of a school-based English linguistic communication course of study. Students are the cardinal participants in course of study reform. “ In Hong Kong pupils are renowned for their difficult work and long hours laboring over their books. It is a really graded and elitist school system in which pupils compete fiercely for secondary school topographic points and merely a little minority are permitted to measure up for university entryway ( Adamson & A ; Davison, 2003 ) ” . The pupils need take activities in the category, motivate and maintain their independent that can put meaningful ends for their ain acquisition, follow the instructors ‘ direction and interact with schoolmates and instructors, measure their ain acquisition experiences and take hazards in the linguistic communication acquisition, at last they should reexamine the acquisition procedure and active engagement in equal and self appraisal. Overall, The design of the English linguistic communication course of study as a lifting continuum provides a image of the entire span of pupils ‘ schooling, easing a developmental and incorporate attack to curriculum planning, learning and larning. It provides the footing for continuity and coherency in the pupils ‘ English linguistic communication instruction.
The theory related to the linguistic communication acquisition underpins
This course of study is designed by be aftering a series of communicative activities with certain standards, the instructors can roll up the informations and feedback from the scholars during the proving the stuff. They discover the demands of the pupils through a series of group work and enter the informations to analysis and find the course of study units, faculties and criterions to enable the pupils to incorporate frequent linguistic communication into their linguistic communication model. In the course of study, it contains the content to assist the instructors apply some efficient methods to form the plan like: design different subjects and subjects in different activities, expand vocabulary and pattern the pronunciation, enable the pupils to talk English often. This subdivision proposal emphasizes the importance of truth in 2nd linguistic communication instruction and the usage of structure-based or form-based attacks. In the survey guide topic 5 references that three positions on linguistic communication acquisition: the behaviorist theoretical account that is linked to a structuralist position of linguistic communication as sentence forms ; the innatist theoretical account that hypothesizes the being of an unconditioned cognitive construction enabling ; and the cognitivist approaches that analyze the cognitive procedures involved in linguistic communication acquisition. During the procedure of workshop, the pupils communicate with the pupils and work together. interaction with the pupils is really important in linguistic communication acquisition. At the interim instructors communicate with the pupils. In fact, at the beginning, allow the scholars communicate with the others that would let them to do mistakes, and the instructors can roll up the feedback from the pupils instantly to forestall these bad wonts. ‘Interactionist theoreticians believe that linguistic communication larning takes topographic point when linguistic communication in the environment interacts with the scholar ‘s internal mechanisms. Interactionism led to surveies of the input the scholar receives, and thence to surveies of interactions in which the input occurs ‘ ( survey guide, p.2 ) . Input which is what sets the full theoretical account in gesture ( see Figure 2 below ; Gass, 2000: 3, The IIO theoretical account of SLA ) .
Furthermore, the interaction in schoolroom takes topographic point between scholars, the consequence of this interaction on scholar linguistic communication development. Long ( cited in survey usher, p.2 ) maintains that modified input in the interaction is thought to be necessary for linguistic communication acquisition. In the apperception phase is the priming phase during which the scholar notices incoming informations, associating them to past experience and so parsing them into meaningful units for farther analysis ( Gass, 1998 ) . Following is comprehended input phase, this is understandability for pupil, it is of critical importance in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. Boulima ( 1999 ) demonstrates that lingual input which is understood by the scholar. During the linguistic communication acquisition in schoolroom it is necessary for scholars to hold entree to comprehendible input through colloquial interaction with instructors and the other pupils. In 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, input is provided different from the mark linguistic communication as usually used between native talkers ( survey guide, p.4 ) . Harmonizing to Long ( 1983a ; 1983b ) references that alterations of the interactive construction of the conversation that make unfamiliar lingual input comprehendible. In Corder ‘s ( 1967, 1978 ) footings ‘intake ‘ , constitutes primary informations for SLA. Input refers to the linguistic communication which the scholars hear or read. Krashen ( 1980b ) says that in order for acquisition to happen, the input the scholar receives has to be comprehendible at the i+1 degree, where I stands for the scholars ‘ current lingual competency and i+1, the phase merely beyond. Therefore, harmonizing to Krashen, acquisition takes topographic point “ when we understand linguistic communication that contains construction that is a ‘little beyond ‘ where we are now ” ( Krashen, 1982a: 21 ) . At last, at the phase of end product, it can function as portion of a feedback cringle to the consumption phase. The scholar trials hypothesis by bring forthing spoken linguistic communication which in bend takes the scholar back to the procedure of assimilation alterations to their grammar system, besides that end product can coerce syntactic instead than semantic analysis ( Block, 2003 ) . This IIO theoretical account is in kernel the most touchable consequence of over 30 old ages of progressively more intensive research into how persons learn 2nd linguistic communications.
The theoretical attack to linguistic communication of pedagogical grammars
During the instruction of English, it should non disregard the grammar. How to learn grammar is a job, which have been blighting people since the twenty-first century. Pedagogical grammars occupy an of import place in foreign linguistic communication instruction, whatever good or bad pedagogical grammars will straight impact the full foreign linguistic communication instruction ; to enable pupils to understand the regulations of grammar and construction. Comprehensible to the scholars enter the sentence structure to turn to the scholars in the Context of grammar in existent pick of theoretical account is desirable. Emphasis on pupil to utilize English to obtain information, treating information, analysing and work outing jobs, pupils with particular accent on English thought and presentation accomplishments preparation ; actively seeking to promote pupils through self-exploration, self-discovery and active acquisition patterns, etc. This is because that can assist the pupils to go an efficient procedure and method of larning English.Pedagogical grammar relies on the one manus on stuff extracted from one or more lingual grammars, on the other manus, uses foreign linguistic communication learning methodological analysis as a footing. Therefore, pedagogical grammar maps as a filter between theoretical linguistic communication descriptions provided by linguistics, foreign linguistic communication teaching method rules and practical applications at schoolroom degree. The undermentioned figure highlights the filtrating map of pedagogical grammar. The significance of pedagogical grammar is redefined in this thesis in order to be able to break function a more functional and meaning-based instruction of grammar. ( see Figure 3 below ; 2006, Pedagogical grammar as a filter theoretical account )
In the linguistic communication instruction, the instructors should choose the basic and utile grammar to learn foremost. The grammar should non be taught thoroughly, and do non follow the beginning demands. If the instructors teach the grammar more profoundly, the more extended position of the grammar will be involved, and errors will necessarily during the linguistic communication learning. They should seek to utilize simple and effectual method to learn the pupils some basic grammar regulations, so that they can get the hang these regulations in order to the linguistic communication communicating. The pupils ‘ proficiency in the usage of grammar, will be strengthened in the hereafter. The instructors should detect the existent state of affairs of the pupils, particularly in larning a grammar is more of import grammatical points, it have to be after agreements for reappraisal and reiterate the exercising. During the undertaking of learning grammar, referred to the practical application every bit far as possible, and to the extent possible put it in the context of learning. In English pedagogical grammars, the instructors sometimes should be necessary for some grammar comparing and analysis of similarities and differences, therefore the pupils can understand and hold on the cognition better. In the pedagogical grammars, the instructors should look into the sentence structure of the pupils to hold on the state of affairs, notice their ability to utilize grammatical regulations, and cultivate the ability of pupils to utilize grammar. In this point of position, the thesis efforts to re-explain the procedure of grammar instruction and larning from an English instructor ‘s point and happen relationships between instructors ‘ beliefs in grammar instruction and their pattern. Pulling on work on several Fieldss such as linguistics, psychological science and 2nd linguistic communication acquisition theory, pedagogical grammar is of assorted nature. It normally means grammatical analysis and direction designed for the demands of 2nd linguistic communication scholars. It involves determination devising processes on behalf of the instructor which require careful and time-consuming interdisciplinary work in its expanded position. This procedure is influenced by the instructors ‘ knowledge, beliefs, premises, and attitudes about the instruction of grammar. Overall, pedagogical grammar is portion of the content which affecting classs and stuffs and portion of the procedure which including instructors ‘ belief systems of grammar instruction and acquisition ( Livia, 2006 ) .
Remark on appraisal of this course of study
Assessment refers to the aggregation and reading of information about scholars ‘ cognition, accomplishments, schemes and attitudes. This chapter discusses the function of appraisal in English Language acquisition and instruction, the rules that should steer appraisal of the topic and the demand for both formative and summational appraisal. It besides provides counsel on internal appraisal and inside informations of the public appraisal of English Language. Finally, information is given on how criterions are established and maintained, and on how consequences are reported with mention to these criterions. General counsel on appraisal can be found in the Senior Secondary Curriculum Guide ( 2007 ) . Appraisal is the pattern of roll uping grounds of pupil acquisition. It is a critical and built-in portion of schoolroom direction, and serves several intents and audiences. During the assorted undertakings and activities in the compulsory and elected parts of the course of study can be used for formative appraisal to supervise the pupils ‘ procedure. These activities can run from low to high in cognitive complexness, in this content, they conclude unwritten undertakings like presentation, group work, listening undertakings affecting gap-filling, diagrams and comprehension of a conversation, reading undertakings which have summarizing, analysing and open-ended inquiries promoting informed and originative responses, composing undertakings such as elections, narrations, statements and expository essays, these undertakings affecting an integrating of accomplishments, etc. During the procedure of the course of study, foremost of all, it gives the feedback to pupils, instructors and parents on the effectivity of learning and on pupil strengths and failings in larning. Second of all, it provides information to schools, school systems, authorities, third establishments and employers to enable them to supervise criterions and to ease choice determinations. The most of import function of appraisal is in advancing acquisition and monitoring pupils ‘ advancement. In Hong Kong, there is an suited illustration to depict this state of affairs, The Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education ( HKDSE ) provides a common end-of-school certificate that gives entree to university survey, work, and farther instruction and preparation. The university entryway scrutiny is an appraisal for the pupils. It summarises student public presentation in the four nucleus topics like English Language text and in assorted elected topics, including both discipline-oriented topics and the new Applied Learning classs. It needs to be read in concurrence with other information about pupils shown in the Student Learning Profile ( English Language Education Key Learning Area, 2007 ) . In add-on, appraisal for acquisition is focus on obtaining the feedback on acquisition and instruction, and using this to do larning more effecient and to present any necessary alterations to learning schemes. For case, Formative appraisal should take topographic point on a day-to-day footing and typically involves close attending to little “ balls ” of larning. Summational appraisal is usually undertaken at the decision of a important period of direction such as at the terminal of the twelvemonth, or of a cardinal phase of schooling and reappraisals much larger “ balls ” of larning ( English Language Education Key Learning Area, 2007 ) . Internal appraisal patterns should be aligned with course of study planning, learning patterned advance, pupil abilities and local school contexts. The information collected will assist to actuate, promote and proctor pupil acquisition, and will besides assist instructors to happen ways of advancing more effectual acquisition and instruction. For case, when measuring scholars ‘ public presentation on undertakings, instructors should measure the procedure every bit good as the merchandise, through observation, conferencing and reexamining scholars ‘ bill of exchanges. These feedback demand to excite scholars ‘ critical contemplation and assist them to better their linguistic communication acquisition. At last, The public appraisal for English Language encompasses the four accomplishments of reading, composing, listening and speech production and besides includes a school-based appraisal constituent which aims to promote extended reading and screening ( English Language Education Key Learning Area, 2007 ) .
To sum up, it is a cardinal point of assisting the scholars to develop proficiency in English, the English linguistic communication course of study in Hong Kong purposes to offer every kid the right to a 2nd linguistic communication which provides farther chances for widening cognition and experience of the civilizations of other people, including chances for farther surveies, pleasance, and work in the English medium ; and to enable every kid populating into the 21st century to be prepared for the altering socio-economic demands ensuing from promotion in information engineering, including the reading, usage and production of stuffs for pleasance, survey or work in the English medium ( English Language Education Key Learning Area, 2007 ) . The globalisation of instruction has become a tendency, in order to maintain gait with the educational development of the new clip, As be a instructor in the hereafter, the function of instructors and professional quality of the cognition construction in the context of globalisation should be adjusted and enrich. More and more teacher get down to larn the new teaching method to hold lessons for pupils, they talk with the pupils freedom like talk with friends and they are non any longer serious to the pupils. Education and the course of study play an of import function in determining pupils ‘ values ( Khalideen, 2006 ) . This is because course of study is typically brooding to the values, attitudes, and beliefs of the.particular civilization and establishment, coercing pupils to absorb to an unfamiliar learning civilization is improbable to be successful and may negative impact on their sense of individuality. Therefore, if I will be a instructor in the hereafter, I need to larn multicultural and originative thought, and have diverse cultural and ideological sensitiveness. I besides should good at larning multicultural to accomplish the combination of their ain civilization of invention. Teachers influence the pupils to a big extent. A good instructor should be on the cyberspace and information system alterations in the field of instruction to take efficient steps instantly. We need to larn new learning theoretical account and design new course of study for the pupils. This English linguistic communication course of study for primary school in Hong Kong is really authoritative to learn the pupil 2nd linguistic communication which can provides farther chances for widening cognition and experience of the civilization of the other people, helpful for the farther surveies, work, etc.