The twentieth century has witnessed an increasing involvement in underwear, engendered by altering cultural values, the chances associated with fresh stuffs and production techniques, and greater focal point on client demands. It has led to better and more scientific bandeau design, more new and advanced stuffs, and an increasing manner content and cleavage of the market. Not simply has the merchandise developed but the channels of distribution have besides changed from the independent fashion/underwear shop to the Renaissance man supermarket mercantile establishments and concatenation manner shops. Trade names have become international ( Victoria ‘s Secret, Triumph, Playtex, Berlei, etc ) .
Underwear or unmentionables are cloths worn following to the tegument, under other fabrics. They help to determine the organic structure and supply support for parts of the organic structure. Some unmentionables are intended for titillating consequence. Some unmentionables serve as nightwear or swimwears. Undergarments normally worn by adult female include bandeaus and panties. And work forces frequently wear boxer trunkss, pugilist Jockey shortss or Jockey shortss. Women ‘s unmentionables are jointly called intimate apparel or confidants. Underwear is worn for a assortment of grounds. Women ‘s bandeaus provide support for their chests. And work forces ‘s Jockey shortss serve the same map for the male genital organ. Womans frequently wear a girdle as a foundation garment to change their organic structure form.
The first undergarment worn by the human existences is the breechcloth. A breechcloth is merely a long strip of stuff which is passed between the legs and so around the waist. Archeologists have found breechcloths dating back to 7,000 old ages. In the Middle Ages both work forces and adult females in European states wore a close adjustment shirt called a duster. Women wore them underneath their gowns or robes. Corsets besides began to be worn in this clip. In the 2nd half of the eighteenth century with the innovation of the whirling Jenny machines and cotton gin mills began to mass green goods underwear. And for the first clip people began to purchase them in shops instead than doing them at place. By the early 1900s the mass produced underwear industry was dining and competition forced manufacturers come up all kinds of advanced thoughts to vie in the market. In 1912 US had its first professional underclothes interior decorator Lindsay Boudreaux. She established a company called Layneau which caused a revolution in the underwear industry. And she is the ground why upscale underclothes and pantie shops exist today. Underwear manner matured in the 1970s and 1980s and sex entreaty became the chief merchandising point.
2009 brought a sudden arrest to old ages of gross revenues growing in intimate apparel and underwear market. Underwear specializers in peculiar faced turning competition from non specializers, as consumers made more considered purchases because of the recession. Before perpetrating themselves to any trade with the Asiatic industries George and Julie has to make some research about the possible markets they might be come ining and more specifically the consumer behaviour associated with female underwear purchase in these markets.
Undertaking 01 – Ladies underwear market in Sri Lanka
In the past three decennaries, intimate apparel has experienced intense transmutation non merely in Sri Lanka but all over the universe. Lingerie has risen from being an unnoticed point of underwear to what has now become a animal merchandise. Thankss to the creativeness of interior decorators, the line between underwear and outer-wear has become blurred. In fact, outer-wear manners are now being challenged by the latest designs in underwear. In Sri Lanka in the mid 1990s, the intimate apparel market was transformed from being a basic vesture public-service corporation into a parade of vivacious manner. Prior to that, the market was mostly uniform. The monetary value point was a cardinal determiner for success and the merchandise offering was instead basic, with supportive manners and primary colures of black, white and skin tones. The market consisted merely of local trade names.
In a market which comprises about five million grownup adult females, the branded intimate apparel section is slightly undeveloped. International trade names such as Triumph enjoys a 15 % incursion in the urban market. Lingerie selling is still in its babyhood and the market comprises a important per centum of immature grownups. In the manner section, value growing by and large outstrips volume additions. And from this Triumph enjoys an estimated 27 % value portion in Sri Lanka. Triumph is the lone international trade name – a rival trade name that continues to drive the section by utilizing the combined scheme of marketing invention and experience. The chief competition is from well-entrenched local trade names that compete on monetary value entirely. Customers who antecedently focused on functional, need based shopping have been converted to mood based, occasion-led shoppers through a assortment of pick merchandises and retail locations.
The graph holla depicts the per capita one-year outgo on underclothes of urban and rural families, 2000 – 2008.
PER CAPITA ANNUAL EXPENDITURE ON UNDERWEAR OF URBAN & A ; RURAL HOUSEHOLDS
Beginning: National Bureau of Statisticss
Harmonizing to the graph the market is divided in to two sections. Urban and Rural and the forms of purchase are increased from 2000 to 2008 in both markets.
The urban market is the bigger and the larger of the two sections. International brands bask a 65 % incursion in this market. Lingerie selling is still in its babyhood in Sri Lanka and the market comprises a important per centum of immature grownups. In the manner section, value growing by and large outstrips volume additions. But in the rural market, the consumers tend to purchase the merchandise on map and comfort footing. Main participants in this market are local trade names that compete merely on monetary value. There is no concern for the intimate dress of a diminution in demand. The industry is non competitions either. Merchandises are priced over a reasonably wide scope with high markups. Firms in this industry have really high net income borders. Furthermore, neither the purchasers who are adult female shoppers nor their hubbies who are purchasing gifts have much dickering power.
When it comes to competition it depends on the country. Department shops and super markets sell intimate dress from a figure of major makers. Many shoppers go to section shops and supermarkets to purchase comfy bandeaus for practical instead than aesthetic usage. The service associated with the merchandises of these industries is inconsistent among section shops.
Before 1990s there were no independent mercantile establishments for selling intimate apparel. With the reaching of international trade names in the mid 1990s, they introduced two new marketing constructs: web selling and the constitution of sole intimate apparel dress shops to Sri Lanka. In a conservative market large international trade names such as victory revolutionized the retailing of intimate apparel by presenting unfastened show selling.
Triumph has four power trade names: Victory, Sloggi, Bee Dees and Valisere. It foremost entered the Sri Lankan market through a joint venture partnership and as a subordinate of a local blue-chip company, MAS retentions. MAS retentions is Sri Lanka ‘s Largest dress exporter, with a really strong regional presence. In 1995, Triumph International Lanka, a private company, was set up to set about the retailing of intimate apparel in the Sri Lankan market. MAS continued to fabricate for the local market every bit good. Triumph revolutionized the hibernating intimate apparel market through the usage of bold merchandise selling schemes that differentiated its merchandises from the competition.
Undertaking 02 – The function of underwear in manner
To understand the function of underwear in manner and how does it accomplish its added value, it is necessary to look at the forces in the intimate apparel industry. First a scope of complements contribute to increasing demand. And the media has elevated the place of intimate dress in the modern society. Magazines advise adult females to featherbed themselves with nice underwear as one of life ‘s secret endurance tips. As for replacements, there are no existent replacements for bandeaus and panties. Bras and panties are trade goods that need to be replaced at a modestly frequent degree. Therefore, there is no concern for the intimate dress industry of a diminution in demand.
In general, lingerie can be worn for either comfort or manner. These two features do non easy overlap good because of the stuffs and designs involved. Cotton is the most comfy stuff, but for most people cotton intimate apparel is rather apparent, both visually and texturally. Lingerie that is perceived as sexy is frequently made of glistening or semitransparent stuffs. Such as cushioned bandeau, bras with underwire cups, bandeaus with exchangeable straps, and lashs alternatively of regular panties do non offer the highest degree of comfort. Given that comfort and manner can non at the same time be maximized, a company in the intimate apparel industry needs to specify its merchandises to stress one more than the other. Most international trade names offer their clients glamour, beauty, manner and a small spot of love affair. They do non specify comfort as one of their merchandising points.
The younger teenage market is a reasonably typical section. They have different sizes from mature adult females, every bit good as different penchants in design and manner. They tend to prefer more colourful subjects and cute forms, alternatively of more sexy colourss such as black and ruddy. The companies in lingerie industry must make this group without put on the lining their established consumer base. There is besides a psychological factor: younger teenage misss do non desire to shop at the same shops as their female parents. As a consequence, younger adolescent misss represent a wholly separate market for intimate apparel.
Gross saless OF VARIOUS APPAREL CATEGORIES IN MAJOR DEPARTMENT STORES
Million Pieces Growth % Million Pieces Growth %
Ladies ‘ Wear
Children ‘s Wear
Work force ‘s Shirt
Work force ‘s Suit
Beginning: National Bureau of Statisticss
As illustrated in the exhibit above, knitted underclothes was the 2nd largest sub-sector in Sri Lanka ‘s dress market and accounted for 13.3 % of the entire dress gross revenues in 2008. The underwear sector is estimated to turn by an one-year rate of 20 % in the following decennary.
Undertaking 03 – Entry in to the intimate apparel market
Underworld Fashion are come ining a really crowded market with merchandises that are design different but technically indistinguishable to others on the market, and taking for a premium place with small famous person backup. Most international trade names have built themselves into highly profitable intimate apparel companies with their selling and operational schemes, but none of them is hard to copy. In order to vie with these large international trade names, an entrant would necessitate a repute for manner and a modest sum of resources to pull manner witting purchasers and emerging ace theoretical accounts. Opening at the regional degree would be plenty to supply handiness and construct a name in a peculiar geographic country, and gradual enlargement to other locations could follow success at the regional degree. While plentifulness of houses already have the graduated table and resources to come in regionally, an entrant would besides necessitate the right repute for manner. To take away concern, hence, a house should non come in the competitory market of mundane underwear, but instead be even more beautiful and sexier than large trade names. Although European interior decorators like Chanel, for illustration, do hold a classy and romantic image all around the universe, they frequently cater to clients who are more up market and have larger budgets. Part of Chanel ‘s temptingness is the expensive piece tickets that guarantee exclusiveness. Selling low-cost intimate apparel may damage the prestigiousness of its bing merchandises instead than runing many shops in local shopping promenades.
The younger teenage market is the perfect get downing point for a new entrant in to the intimate apparel industry. Average younger adolescents have the luxury of non holding to worry about paying fixed life disbursals. They typically get allowances from parents, and are free to pass the money in any manner. As a consequence younger adolescents as a group have really significant purchasing power. Most large participants do non take advantage of this purchasing power good plenty, go forthing an first-class chance for a new entrant. For something as confidant and personal as intimate apparel, clients have a high inclination to remain loyal to a trade name that they are familiar with. Thus, presuming that a new entrant is so successful with the younger adolescent misss, these misss will really likely stay with the same trade name when they grow older and when the entrant introduces merchandises for mature adult females. By get downing at a immature age this new entrant “ trains ” misss to be loyal to its trade name, and thereby prevents them from going clients of other trade names.
An come ining company can seek to assail large participants by stressing on the fact that the intimate apparel these companies produce are non comfy to have on. In order to come in this high terminal market, the new entrant demands merchandises that provide a higher degree of have oning comfort, while fiting the stylistic values of other large companies in the industry. There are some possible attacks for such an entrant.
Discover or synthesise a suited new stuff that integrates the comfort of the cotton with the glamor of stuffs that are typically used for fancy intimate apparel. The features of this new stuff will straight specify the new merchandises, and with appropriate selling and publicities, these merchandises will go able rivals of large international trade names. The drawback of this attack is the uncertainness of whether such a new stuff can be discovered of synthesized. The new entrant will necessitate considerable sums of clip and fiscal dedication into the find and innovation procedure, bearing the hazard that it might be a bootless attempt.
Use the media to re- invent the definition of “ stylish intimate apparel ” Assorted media, Television, Movies, Fashion Magazines have tremendous power over the popular definition of ‘fashion ‘ . A new entrant can take a series of lingerie merchandises that can be made with bing engineering, and specify them as the newest stylish points. For illustration, the new entrant and choose cotton intimate apparel with really delicate and feminine designs. Assuming that the new entrant has the fiscal power to act upon assorted media, the media can specify cotton as a new tendency that provides the kernels of comfy manner and delicate familiarity. Manner is after all, what is popular at the minute ; lingerie purchasers will follow what the popular media endorse. The trouble in this attack is that the attempt to act upon the media is associated with a really big budget, particularly for a new trade name that is unfamiliar to consumers. There is besides the uncertainness whether the new manner will prevail or merely fade in history. Currently band size and cup size qualify a bandeau. The set size measures the size around the rib coop, and the cup size measures the furthest lift of the flop from the organic structure. These two sizes do non, nevertheless, account for the different forms that cups and potentially have. The cup form is closely related to the size of the base of the cup, and hence the cup base diameter can be an extra dimension that helps to break stipulate a size of bandeau and makes it suit more comfortably. A new entrant can publicize this 3rd dimension in a bandeau size as a characteristic that enhances the comfort of its merchandises. One factor that can be peculiarly do this attack possible is the cost of fabrication and maintaining an stock list of little measures of merchandises tends to diminish as a consequence of improved engineering. To guarantee that clients are cognizant of and excited about such a characteristic, nevertheless, the new entrant demands to put into sufficient client instruction.
All of these attacks are plausible to a certain grade, but all of them are surely more easy implemented by large trade names. This has the overpowering advantage of an established trade name name. With their overpowering domination it would be really hard for a new entrant in the intimate apparel market to sell a new merchandise, A new tendency, or a new construct, accordingly, while a new participant in the industry may successfully set up a higher-end trade name name for comfy intimate apparel. But it will be hard to show a significant challenge to the large participants in this peculiar market of glamourous intimate apparel.
Undertaking 04 – Market research methods
Marketing researchA is the systematic assemblage, recording, and analysis of informations about issues associating toA marketingA merchandises and services. The term is normally interchanged withA market research ; nevertheless, adept practicians may wish to pull a differentiation, in thatA marketA research is concerned specifically withA markets, whileA marketingA research is concerned specifically about selling procedures. Based on the analysis of the female underwear market in Sri Lanka we can utilize three types of research methods to research on the market. These methods are concept testing, rating of paradigms and broader motivational issues as to buying manners.
Concept TestingA is the procedure of usingA quantitative methodsA andA qualitative methodsA to measure consumer response to a merchandise thought prior to the debut of a merchandise to theA market. It can besides be used to bring forth communicating designed to change consumer attitudes toward bing merchandises. These methods involve the rating byA consumersA of merchandise constructs holding certain rational benefits, such as “ a detergent that removes discolorations but is soft on cloths, ” or non-rational benefits, such as “ a shampoo that lets you be yourself. ” Such methods are normally referred to as construct testing and have been performed utilizing field studies, personal interviews andA focal point groups, in combination with assorted quantitative methods, to bring forth and measure merchandise constructs. AA focal point groupA is a signifier ofA qualitative researchA in which a group of people are asked about their perceptual experiences, sentiments, beliefs and attitudes towards a merchandise, service, construct, advertizement, thought, or packaging.A Questions are asked in an synergistic group puting where participants are free to speak with other group members.
The construct coevals parts of construct proving have been preponderantly qualitative. Ad professionals have by and large created constructs and communications of these constructs for rating by consumers, on the footing of consumer studies and other market research, or on the footing of their ain experience as to which constructs they believe represent merchandise thoughts that are worthwhile in the consumer market.
The quantitative parts of construct proving processs have by and large been placed in three classs:
( 1 ) construct ratings, where constructs stand foring merchandise thoughts are presented to consumers in verbal or ocular signifier and so quantitatively evaluated by consumers by bespeaking grades of purchase purpose, likeliness of test, etc. ,
( 2 ) Placement, which is concept rating wherein constructs positioned in the same functional merchandise category are evaluated together, and
( 3 ) product/concept trials, where consumers foremost evaluate a construct, so the corresponding merchandise, and the consequences are compared.
The traditional system of construct testing has been unequal as a agency to place and quantify the standards upon which consumer penchant of one construct over another was based. These methods were deficient to determine the comparative importance of the factors responsible for or regulating why consumers, markets and market sections reacted otherwise to constructs presented to them in the construct trials. Without such information, market research workers and advertizers, with their expertness, could generalise, on the footing of a construct trial, as to how consumers might respond to the existent merchandises or to fluctuations of the tried constructs. Communication of the construct, as embodied in a new merchandise, has by and large been left to the creativeness of the advertisement bureau. No systematic quantitative method was known, nevertheless, which could accurately place the standards on which the consumer picks were based and the part or importance of each standard to the purchase determination. Therefore, old construct proving methods have failed to supply market research workers with the complete information necessary for them to make merchandises specifically tailored to fulfill a consumer group balance of purchase standards.
Furthermore, traditional construct proving methods have failed to accurately quantify the relationships between consumer response to constructs and consumer pick of bing merchandises which compete in the same consumer market. Therefore, they were unable to supply a communicating of the benefits of a consumer merchandise, closely stand foring the tried construct, to a high grade of truth.
These jobs of construct proving have been identified in concern and selling diaries. For illustration, Moore and William ( 1982 ) in a literature study and reappraisal of construct proving methodological analysis, point out that construct trials have failed to account for alterations between the construct tested and the communicating depicting the benefits of the merchandise which embodies the construct. The Moore article studies that “ no sum of betterment in current construct proving patterns can rectify these jobs. ” This is brooding of the fact that none of the traditional methods provided a quantitative agency for determining the comparative importance of the underlying standards of construct picks as a agency for placing the ocular and verbal looks of the constructs which best communicate the benefits sought by the consumer. Nor did the traditional methods quantify the relationships between constructs and bing merchandises offered in the same consumer market. The ability of a method to better or get the better of the above defects would supply significant betterment in communicating of the constructs identified in proving and offered to the market as a merchandise.
Today, with the coming of the Internet, construct testing has experienced a revival. Armed with the ability to demo 1000s of respondents images of an existent construct, many market research workers, and organisations, have had their religion restored in this one time questionable method. Online study takers now have the ability to see a possible merchandise in a similar mode to how they would see the same merchandise in a retail environment. In add-on, with on-line retailing become progressively outstanding, many online respondents are besides on-line consumers. Therefore, they are able to easy put themselves in the mentality of a consumer looking to purchase goods or services. Since the reaching of these methods, market research workers have been able to do better, more accurate, suggestions to their clients sing the determination to travel frontward, revision, or get down over with a merchandise construct. OnlineA Choice ModelingA for illustration can bring forth detailedA econometricA theoretical accounts of demand for assorted properties of the new merchandise such as characteristic, packaging and monetary value.
In the universe ofA selling, focal point groups are seen as an of import tool for geting feedback sing new merchandises, every bit good as assorted subjects. In peculiar, concentrate groups allow companies wishing to develop, bundle, name, or trial market a new merchandise, to discourse, position, and/or test the new merchandise before it is made available to the populace. This can supply priceless information about the possible market credence of the merchandise. Traditional focal point groups can supply accurate information, and are less expensive than other signifiers of traditionalA selling research. There can be important costs nevertheless: if a merchandise is to be marketed on a countrywide footing, it would be critical to garner respondents from assorted venues throughout the state since attitudes about a new merchandise may change due to geographical considerations. This would necessitate a considerable outgo in travel and housing disbursals. Additionally, the site of a traditional focal point group may or may non be in a locale convenient to a specific client, so client representatives may hold to incur travel and housing disbursals every bit good.
The usage of focal point groups has steadily evolved over clip and is going progressively widespread.
Discrepancies of focal point groups include:
Bipartisan focal point groupA – one focal point group watches another focal point group and discusses the ascertained interactions and decision
Dual moderator focal point groupA – one moderator ensures the session progresses swimmingly, while another ensures that all the subjects are covered
Dueling moderator focal point groupA – two moderators intentionally take opposite sides on the issue under treatment
Respondent moderator focal point groupA – one or more of the respondents are asked to move as the moderator temporarily
Client participant focal point groupsA – one or more client representatives participate in the treatment, either covertly or overtly
Mini focal point groupsA – groups are composed of four or five members instead than 6 to 12
Teleconference focal point groupsA – telephone web is used
On-line focal point groupsA – computing machines connected via the cyberspace are used
Undertaking 05 – Selling channels and Decision
By analysing the above information and on the footing of the analysis of the forms of retail consumer behaviour toward bing premium merchandises there is a feasible market for this type of merchandises in Sri Lanka.
Underworld Fashion can sell their ware through three channels: retail shops, catalogues and the Internet. This “ 360 grade ” attack reinforces the company ‘s trade name and expands gross revenues chances, assisting clients to purchase what they want anytime and anyplace. Company executives can besides take among the multiple channels for the manner of presentation that best suits and enhances the entreaty of a specific point. For case, shoppers may more likely purchase in shops ware that they prefer to seek on or looks better on manikins. At the same clip, consumers view most single points offered in catalogues or on
Their web site romanticized on photographed theoretical accounts, whereas in shops, the same merchandize might otherwise merely bent on shop racks. The catalogue and web site moreover provide purchasers, peculiarly work forces who are buying gifts, with options to the embarrassment some of them feel when walking into a lingerie shop.
Sri Lanka ‘s domestic dress endeavors by and large lag behind in branding. Although domestic trade names have a strong place in the mass market, they receive small acknowledgment in the most profitable mid-high to luxury sections. Endeavoring to travel up the value ladder, some domestic dress endeavors are paying more attending to constructing trade name equity. Supply concatenation efficiency today plays a finding function in endeavors ‘ success as gustatory sensations of growingly spoting
Local consumers become more volatile than of all time. Some domestic dress endeavors strive to larn from foreign cheap-chic manner participants in heightening their velocity to market. Changes are besides coercing endeavors to follow more flexible supply ironss. Enterprises now recognize the importance of antiphonal supply ironss in order to respond rapidly with the altering consumer demands. Domestic participants are besides progressing their research and development capacity.