In the undermentioned undertaking and in conformity with the bibliography I have been used, I will depict and analyse the flexibleness and work. More specifically, I refer to history and the multidimensional construct. Then I will analyse the signifiers of flexible work, and I will show the advantages and disadvantages for employees and employers. Finally, I will mention how the flexibleness is carried out in Europe and Greece and I will show my ain decisions.
The current epoch is characterized by its fast gait of life, alterations in engineering and increased unemployment. All these contribute to making a more complex and competitory work environment. In this environment, has been created the most popular tendency, the flexibleness of working, which interacting with the labour market, because more and more people choose it. As for employees, flexible working forms is a manner to reorganise their personal life, have more free clip, have limited emphasis and hapless public presentation and you can acquire faster the coveted experience. As for employers, the flexibleness it gives them the chance to cut down costs and do them more competitory. Nowadays, the flexibleness of employment has taken assorted signifiers, with parttime and work at place be the most prevailing.
The times we have came so far characterized as times of great alterations in the labour market. The eighteenth century was marked by the industrial revolution, which deeply affected the on the job conditions and life, since there was a long manual work in mills. Passing the twentieth century industrial dealingss took a different bend, because of technological and societal factors, such as the rapid development of engineering worldwide. ( Rifkin, 1996 )
Furthermore, the fact that more and more adult females left their traditional function, which was in the house and worked was a phenomenon peculiarly noticeable from 1970 and after. At the same clip unemployment was a planetary job, since it increases quickly due to the fuel crisis. Employees, because of the new forms of life and long hours work, were seeking to happen ways to equilibrate work and personal life. All above, together with the fact that companies were seeking to happen new ways to cut down costs, contributed to the outgrowth of flexible working signifiers. ( Layard et al, 1991, Lake, 2009 )
In the 80s and 90s were two basic theoretical accounts of flexibleness in Europe, the Swedish theoretical account and the British. Most European states applied the Swedish theoretical account or quality theoretical account, while the Mediterranean states like Spain and Greece applied chiefly theoretical account of illegal flexibleness. ( ????I®? , 2001 )
Today, in Greece the pay theoretical account ranges still in illegality and backward rates, as dominates the civilization of low cost without the usage of engineering and upgrading of workers. ( ????I®? , 2001, ???????I??? ?????I??? ?.?.?.? , 2010 )
Near the terminal of 90, and in peculiar the 1999, the 10 % of the work force in Europe is unemployed. More specifically in Spain, the unemployment was 18.8 % , in Italy 12.2 % and 11.7 % in Greece while in the Netherlands merely 4 % were unemployed. At this clip, 40 % of the work force employed with some signifier of flexible work. Specifically, 17.4 % in Europe were utilizing parttime occupations, with the chief representatives in Netherlands, with 38.8 % and in UK with 24.9 % . , while 12.8 % usage impermanent work, like in Spain with 32 % . It is deserving observing that adult females use more flexible signifiers of employment with a rate of 31.8 % compared with 5.9 % of work forces. ( ????I®? , 2001 )
At the decennary of the 90s, European Union remained non lazily with the phenomenon of unemployment and the issue of employment. In 1994 in the European Council was discussed the publicity of employment as one of the most of import issues and entered some aims. These aims became known as the ”Essen Strategy ” , which was reforming its policies on planetary employment. Two old ages subsequently, was established the European Employment Strategy by the Treaty of Amsterdam. Guaranting made from the Luxembourg ‘Jobs acme ‘ . The thematic precedences agreed at the meeting were grouped into four pillars, entrepreneurship, employability, adaptability and equal chances. The contents of adaptability consisted from the modernisation of work organisation, from flexibleness of working and from the mobilisation of province assistance policies on upgrading the labour force. ( ?????I??????? , 2009a )
Greece is characterized by flexible signifiers of work due to the use by illegal or legal signifier, from a big per centum of employees. Particular addition in illegal flexibleness had from early 90 ‘ , since at that clip there was a big moving ridge of immigrants in Greece. Increasing the anarchy contributed besides the reduced reviews by the competent establishments of the review labour. More general, the 90 was non the proper organisation and the suited monitoring by province. ( ????I®? , 2001 )
Harmonizing to ???????????I® and ????????I¬? ( 2003 ) in the private sector in Greece 79 % of employees have lasting and stable occupation. A farther 12 % covered by seasonal and insouciant work and parttime Jobs is covered by 8.7 % .
More specifically, adult females and immature people are engaged largely in seasonal and insouciant employment, which finds land in hotels, edifice industry and retail market. In the services sector, peculiarly in the populace sector and DECO, is located part-time for coverage seasonal demands. ( ???????????I® ??? ????????I¬? , 2003 )
Harmonizing to the newspaper Kathimerini, in 2010 there were 8,256 more contract alterations from full to a flexible signifier, observing upward class for labour market flexibleness. ( ???I??? , 2011 )
Equally long as the construct of flexibleness in the labour market there are many sentiments and theories about the definition, which makes it a multidimensional construct. By and large, the term flexibleness as industrial dealingss, mentioning to understandings made aˆ‹aˆ‹between employer and employee and which concern working hours, location, employment undertakings and rewards on a more flexible model. One chief ground may go such an understanding is, from the side of the employer, to cut down costs and better organisation of resources harmonizing with the demand and from the employee side the better organisation of his personal life. So, flexibleness allows covering the demands of a concern and reconciliation work and personal life of a worker. ( ???????????I® ??? ????????I¬? , 2003, Flexibility.co.uk, 2009 )
More item from the side of the authoritiess, flexible work supported strongly since they cut down unemployment and increase employment. For employers, flexibleness means cut downing runing costs, increase fight and higher net incomes. Furthermore, the addition in unemployment, the fast rates of life and fiscal troubles, coercing many employees withstand with the option of flexible work. Furthermore, I could state that flexibleness is the ability of a company or an employee to be flexible to the altering environment and be adapted harmonizing to developments. ( ???????????I® ??? ????????I¬? , 2003 )
The chief types of flexibleness are dwelling of the hours, the topographic point and the employment contract and the flexibleness to fees, the responsibilities and the usage of outsourcing. Typically in relation to these distinguished the undermentioned theoretical accounts of flexibleness are: numerical, temporal, functional, fiscal, distancing and location flexibleness. ( ???????????I® ??? ????????I¬? , 2003, ????I®? , 2001, ?????I??????? , 2011b )
More specifically, the rapid development of engineering and the chances that offered hold given an chance for those who choose flexible working to hold the possibility to work outside of the company. This is achieved by working at place or by telephone or by other ways and it called Location flexibleness. In work at place is included the tele-working, where employees are able to utilize communicating engineering to present a occupation via the computing machine and the cyberspace. Working at place is more widespread, particularly in the United Kingdom, since harmonizing to a study of Flexibility.co.uk 1 to 8 working at place, while 20 % of the work force works at least three yearss a hebdomad at place. Working at place is preferred by employers and employees to cut down travel costs and increase the infinite in company. Another manner to work with this type is the ‘hot desking ‘ , where the employee does non hold its ain infinite but continually moved elsewhere within the company, harmonizing to his responsibilities. ( Lake,2009, ???????????I® ??? ????????I¬? , 2003, ?????I??????? , 2011b, Flexibility.co.uk, 2009a )
Another type of flexibleness is flexibleness in hours or temporal flexibleness, which person can take reduced on the job hours, which is below than eight hours, or take dark work, flexible hours and working on Sundays and the Holidays. From the above, the most known type of flexible occupation is portion clip. This type is preferred by people who want to unite two occupations, or people who have limited free clip. ( Flexibility.co.uk, 2009a, Lake, 2009, ???????????I® ??? ????????I¬? , 2003, ?????I??????? , 2011b )
The flexible hours regards a fixed quota of hours of work. In this instance, the employee decides along with the employer, about how many hours he will work each twenty-four hours and on status that the undertaking will be finished by the deadline assigned to it. ( Flexibility.co.uk, 2009a, Lake, 2009, ?????I??????? , 2011b )
Another type of flexible hours is the annualized hours, where the employee agrees with an employer ‘s entire one-year working hours, which will change harmonizing to the duties that will delegate to him/her every clip. Additionally, an employee may take zero hours contracts, with which he/she is standby and he/she will work whenever employer needs him or whenever there is a occupation vacancy. In this type are included replacements physicians, nurses and instructors. ( Flexibility.co.uk, 2009a, Lake, 2009, ?????I??????? , 2011b )
An invention of endeavors to supervise whether employees comply with their working hours is the placement of particular machines, where an employee with a particular card attesting the reaching and go forthing from the workplace. ( Lake, 2009 )
The contracts of employment to a typical full-time called indefinite. But, there are flexible work contracts, which may take the signifier of temporal continuance and see employee who work impermanent or occasional or with one-year contract hours. This flexible signifier among in the Numerical flexibleness or flexible contracts and in general footings change the labour Torahs in a more favourable model for employers since given to them the chance to disregard the employee with fewer punishments. Furthermore, it gives to employer the ability to increase and diminish the figure of work force whenever it needs. Besides, in this signifier are included bureau work and zero hours working. ( Marchington and Parker, 1990, ???????????I® ??? ????????I¬? , 2003, ?????I??????? , 2011b, ????I®? , 2001, Flexibility.co.uk, 2009a )
The 4th signifier of work flexibleness is the flexibleness in the wages, which called fiscal flexibleness. In this signifier the system of payment of the employee deflective from the traditional in which is include the minimal wages. In it place was placed the system of wage which based on public presentation and productiveness of the worker and besides by concern public presentation. In the first instance the employee is evaluated separately or jointly for his public presentation, by promoting for higher public presentation in order to acquire higher wage. In the 2nd instance, the wage of workers depends on net incomes or losingss of the company.
( ???????????I® ??? ????????I¬? , 2003, ????I®? , 2001 )
One of the most of import signifiers of flexibleness is the flexibleness of undertakings or the Functional flexibleness, whose intent is to redefine the responsibilities of employees in a more flexible and organizationally framework, giving them the chance of farther instruction ( multi-skilling ) . In this manner, employees can set about a wider scope of undertakings and cut down the clip to do a batch of plants. ( Marchington and Parker, 1990, ???????????I® ??? ????????I¬? , 2003, ?????I??????? , 2011b )
The latest theoretical account of flexibleness is called distancing and it refers to flexible partnerships with 3rd parties, as some other bureau ( outsourcing ) . Specifically, regards the flexibleness that may hold a company in order to intrust undertakings to outside individuals or to other organisations with intent of cut downing the direct employees and salvaging money. In this instance, employers use contractors such as cleansing companies, call centre services and conveyance operators. ( Marchington and Parker, 1990 )
Flexible work can offer many positive characteristics and benefits to employees in societal, economic, professional and personal degree. An of import part is the riddance of unemployment, since is given the chance to work straight on a wider scope of people. Besides of import is the part at the degree of wellness to workers, since harmonizing to a survey published in Flexibility.co.uk. Flexible signifiers of work can cut down the hazard of bosom disease or other diseases, such as emphasis. ( Flexibility.co.uk, 2009b, Lake, 2009 )
Harmonizing to a study, which took topographic point by The work foundation, in a sample of five 100 employees, 69 % of them stated that they want to pass more clip with their household, peculiarly those who working in full clip. This characteristic could be given by a flexible signifier of employment such as parttime work, since the worker may be better forming his clip and therefore the work-life balance. Besides, the employee may be have more occupation satisfaction as he/she can hold, to a grade, the pick of working conditions and the pick of people who will work with them. Finally, flexibleness in employment may be cut downing the cost of conveyance cut down emphasis factors and aid to avoid traffic. ( Jones, 2006, Lake, 2009 )
On the other manus, the flexibleness of employment may keep some hazards for workers. One illustration is the sense of isolation, if the employee works outside the office and without other co-workers. As a consequence, the worker may experience lonely and socially stray. Furthermore, person who works outside the office has to cover the job of the really good organisation and subject, without being forcing by the necessary force per unit area that will help for better focal point on accomplishing the ends. Another job that needs to cover the employee is to supply a suited workspace at place or in another topographic point and the job of high communicating costs. ( Businesslink.gov.uk, 2011, Lake, 2009 )
In most instances, the wage of a worker is determined by the entire hours of working. In a set of flexible employment may be is well smaller than the criterion, i.e. over eight hours. In this instance, the employee will gain less than the basic wage, while has to cover the job of stableness of his/her place, because employers have the power of more ”easy ” redundancy. For this ground, many argue that employers are profiting at the disbursal of workers and work them. Additionally, work outside the Office may be concealing the hazard of information security that uses a worker, as there is no 1 to oversee. The deficiency of the presence of such a individual grows the communicating job may hold the company with the employee, such as wasting clip for account questions. ( Businesslink.gov.uk, 2011, Lake, 2009 )
Flexibility in work brings many advantages for employers in the concern environment. One of the most of import is cut down the cost for companies that achieved with the lowest wages, by salvaging energy and infinite and besides with non-abused employee. As respects the latter, it is deserving observing that flexibleness helps companies to utilize workers for a peculiar work, where there is a demand in order to decently work the human factor. ( Actnow, 2011, Friedman, 2011 )
Working at place retains and attracts employees, while increasing engagement and morale. The employee may experience more comfy and stress free when working flexibly, positively act uponing the efficiency and productiveness of the company. Furthermore, there is a lessening in turnover, absenteeism and ill yearss by bettering the timing of the aims set by the company. ( Actnow, 2011, Friedman, 2011 )
Another positive consequence for companies is most success in pulling immature workers with over accomplishments and cognition than the current employees. This succeeded because of current life styles that keep gait with new theoretical accounts of flexible work, which is normally the first pick by immature workers. ( Actnow, 2011, Friedman, 2011 )
By accomplishing of above, companies managed to increase client satisfaction and give a friendlier and sensitive image within the significance that employers take see the reconciliation between work and household life. ( Friedman, 2011 )
Finally, the pick of flexible theoretical accounts from their employers may make some issues. One disadvantage is that the company can non continuously supervise the employee and how they work, making a hazard of the consequence of the undertaking which must be implemented. Additionally, the flexibleness of the employee can adversely impact the absences of the house or even force into more frequent surrenders, which automatically mean increasing costs for happening new staff. ( Businesslink.gov.uk, 2011, Lake, 2009 )
In decision, flexible signifiers of work will be discussed and will significantly impact industrial dealingss and working environment in the hereafter, both in Europe and particularly in Greece. The positive elements are plenty for employees and their employers, but I think it should be rational usage in signifiers, from the side both of them because there are many concealed dangers. Of class, grounds has shown that although it used by authoritiess, such as Greece, to cut down unemployment, there is increasing on unemployment. So, person will inquire why while flexibleness has many advantages for employees, although non all states are affected positive? Finally, I believe that it will be found and others manners of flexible work, since history has shown us that engineering ne’er stops to germinate.