Academic literature on refugees

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Approach adapted in the articles

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The article “The ocular dehumanization of refugees” by Roland, David, Emma and Xzarina applies the interpretative attack in qualitative research. In this attack, it is normally subjective to the constructed world and seeks to confirm the comparative truths. It normally calls for the demand to research, explicate and understand world and it is qualitative in nature. The research workers can use methods such as studies in which the information is collected o step the societal phenomenon under survey. The targeted group or population is described and the societal theories tested on the survey subject. The information aggregation methods applied includes the usage of questionnaires, interview, observation and paperss. In this article, the researcher’s chief country of focal point is the impact of the ocular presentation of the Australia refuge searchers and the influence it has on the perceivers. The full article critically observes the influence the newspaper images have on the Australian people in mention on their reaction towards the safeties.

In order to guarantee lucidity and accent on the statement, the writers focus on the newspaper presentation of the refugees for the period “August to December 2001 and October 2009 to September 2011 ( Roland, David, Emma and Xzarina, 2013.pp.400-402 ) ” These periods are chosen because they influenced the federal elections and important controversial events affecting the refuge searchers. The usage of the media images allows the research workers narrow down their analysis on the emotional reaction of the people in relation to the refuge searchers issues on an single and political degree. It is noted that some of the media presentation on the safeties portrays them as a menace to the society while in other instances it triggers the empathy emotions on the persons. For this ground it has frequently influenced the intervention the refugees receive once they are in the state. Therefore, the article merely applies the qualitative informations that is interpreted to back up the topic’s statement in relation to the refugee’s issues. Thus is follows the interpretative attack rules that merely name for an reading of the qualitative informations to make to a concluding decision on the survey subject.

The article “Love thy neighbour: Explaining refuge seeking and hosting” by Eunhye and Jeong, on the other manus utilizes the positivism attack in qualitative research methodological analysiss. A positivism attack is scientific, nonsubjective, and robust and frequently involves the designation of instances, trials hypotheses and uses the methods of the natural scientific disciplines. In the article, the writer first identifies the instance which is majorly the mistreatment of the refugees seeking refuge in Australia. In a brief background on refugee instances, the research worker highlights the issue of refugees and their intervention as they seek refuge in the state. To farther stress the statement, they formulate hypothesis that comprise of:

“Hypothesis 1: The figure of refuge applications is higher in safe and flush states, which are ( 1a ) more politically secured, ( 1b ) more democratic, ( 1c ) more human rights respective, ( 1d ) economically flush, and ( 1e ) more public assistance oriented.”

“Hypothesis 2: Refuge acknowledgment rates are higher in states with political and economic capacity, which are ( 2a ) more politically secured, ( 2b ) more democratic, ( 2c ) more human rights respective, ( 2d ) economically flush, and 2e ) more public assistance oriented.”

Hypothesis 3: The figure of refuge applications is higher in states that provide higher degrees of webs at the refuge seekers’ disposal”

“Hypothesis 4: Refuge acknowledgment rates are higher in states that maintain a higher grade of foreign cultural networks.”

“Hypothesis 5: The figure of refuge applications is higher in states that are closest to their places than those that are farther off from their homes.”

Hypothesis 6: Refuge acknowledgment rates are lower in states that are geographically close to refugee-generating states than those farther removed from refugee-producing countries.”

Hypothesis 7: Refuge acknowledgment rates positively affect the figure of refuge applications.”

“Hypothesis 8: The figure of refuge applications is higher in states with stronger links to the universe civil order, particularly the international refugee government, than those with weaker links to the universe polity.”

“Hypothesis 9: Refuge acknowledgment rates are higher in states with stronger links to the universe civil order, including the international refugee government, than those with weaker links to the universe polity.” ( Eunhye and Jeong, 2014.pp51-55 )

The derived hypothesis are so proved through the usage of qualitative informations that is collected utilizing a cross sectional clip series analysis of the 1982-2008 informations set on the refugee issue in Australia. Further, the research workers employ the random effects Tobit theoretical account to construe the available informations. Therefore, it is realizable that the research workers apply the positivism attack because besides being a qualitative research, it applies the scientific research methods and covers a broad country to let them make an incontestable decision on the subject under survey.

Methodological design and methods used

The article “Love thy neighbour: Explaining refuge seeking and hosting” by Eunhye and Jeong, on the other manus utilizes the positivism attack which is backed by a cross sectional clip series analysis of informations. This is on the evidences of the Tobit theoretical account. The survey population comprised of 89 states for the dependent variables and descriptive statistics of the variables used to set about the information analysis. The dependent variables identified comprised of the figure of asylum appliers and the states refugee acknowledgment rates. All the variables informations was obtained from the UNHCR statistical twelvemonth books. The dependent variables, on the other manus, comprised of political security index, economic development, societal public assistance policy, remittals, common linguistic communication shared, figure of neighbouring states, neighbour of 10 directing states, lagged acknowledgment rates, adaptation of the 1967 protocols, and domestic refugee jurisprudence statute law among others. The control variables comprised of the refugee influx and the size of the state ( Eunhye and Jeong, 2014.pp56-57 ) .

In add-on, a statistical method was used to analyse the relationship of the variables. The dependent variables that included the refuge acknowledgment rate and the figure of asylum appliers was rated at the lower 0 bound for which the information set established a 50 % observations. The random Tobit theoretical accounts were so used to gauge the refuge acknowledgment and applications. This is because the random effects theoretical accounts facilitate the observation of the effects of autocorrelation amongst the independent regressors and mistake footings. Finally, a one twelvemonth lagged independent variables were used to forestall endogeneity jobs amongst the dependant and independent variables with an freedom on the silent person variables ( Eunhye and Jeong, 2014.pp58 ) . This attack was the most appropriate for the survey subject based on the fact that it utilized the rationalist attack that requires a scientific attack in the informations aggregation and information analysis. In add-on, the informations collected was based on the figure of hypothesis identified and therefore needed a proficient attack to efficaciously proof or differ with the hypothesis. This was efficaciously achieved utilizing the methodological analysis adapted on the survey.

The 2nd article “The ocular dehumanization of refugees” by Roland, David, Emma and Xzarina applies the interpretative attack which was supported by a systematic ocular content analysis attack. This method was used to analyse the front page coverage of the Sydney Morning Herald and The Australian. A content analysis involves a anterior preparation of a set of hypothesis based on a set of premises. Although there were many options of carry oning the analysis, merely two trials were undertaken that sought to place: “whether the media coverage portrays asylum searcher as identifiable persons or anon. big groups” ( Roland, David, Emma and Xzarina, 2013.pp.403 ) . The determination arrived at was propagated by a preliminary screening of ocular informations and a study on the supportive literature. The available surveies literatures established that images having individual victims evoked emotions on the viewing audiences as compared to those of groups of people. This was the exclusive ground of the research as it sought to set up “the extent to which the psychological kineticss were visually represented on the front coverage of the refuge seekers” ( Roland, David, Emma and Xzarina, 2013.pp.404 )

Finally, all the images of the refuges were coded into four classs consisting of persons, little groups of 2-3, average groups of 15 and big groups of 16 plus. The entire figure of images sampled was 87 having the refuge searchers. This method was the most appropriate for the research since it was interpretative in nature. The coded images and analysis of the available literature provided plenty informations to make to a conclusive determination on the destiny of refuge searchers in Australia. The research was besides based on the psychological impact of the images on the persons as a consequence of the image emotional influence on the persons who saw the front page images. As identified in the research, a group of people was less likely to ensue in emotional impact on the viewing audiences as compared to a individual image of a refugee. Therefore, the assorted attacks used by research workers in both articles efficaciously met the demand o the research.

Decisions reached by the writers

The article “Love thy neighbour: Explaining refuge seeking and hosting” by Eunhye and Jeong, concludes that the refuge searchers tend to prefer the states with better public assistance and the immediate bordering state to their state. The refuge searchers besides prefer the states considered as globally enculturated for they are believed to go through domestic refugee Torahs, sign human rights pacts and that they have big NGO rank. The states with the 1967 protocol, on the other manus, have a high leaning to acknowledge refuge. The survey besides suggests that the universe civil order is so at work and it is influential on the picks of refuge searchers and policy responses of the host states. The decision is justifiable as the survey utilized the intense scientific attack with nine hypotheses. This was a clear indicant that the proper research was undertaken for the research workers to make at the decisions.

The 2nd article “The ocular dehumanization of refugees” by Roland, David, Emma and Xzarina concludes that the taking national newspapers in Australia portray the refuge searchers in a peculiar, extremely political and dehumanising ways. The survey population that was popularly represented was the medium to big groups whose were presented in consistent ocular presence of boats. The single images of refugees that have great influence on the viewer’s compassion and empathy made up merely 2 % of the entire images. In add-on, more than half of the images displayed no ocular characteristics of the persons. This shows that the refuge searchers reaching does non connote a human-centered crisis that requires compassion but alternatively as a menace to the Australian security and sovereignty. The attack used was the most appropriate for it allowed for an intense comparing of images and a comparative analysis of the assorted positions on the intervention of the refuge searchers.

Decision

The two articles chiefly seek to turn to the same issue on refuge searchers but they approach the subject otherwise. The article “The ocular dehumanization of refugees” explores the dehumanisation of the refuge searchers through images posted on the front pages of newspapers and uses the interpretative attack. The other article “Love thy neighbour: Explaining refuge seeking and hosting” explores the refuge searchers through probe on the factors act uponing refuge searchers and the application processes in the host state. It uses a Tobit analysis and the positivism attack in qualitative analysis. Therefore, the major difference between the articles is on the survey subject and the research attack used by the research workers. The two articles greatly contribute to the issue on the refuge searchers for they bring a new visible radiation on their intervention in the host states and besides the reverses in the host states application procedure. The readers and other research workers can place the spreads that have non been answered or addressed by the available literatures.

Mentions

Roland B. , David C. , Emma H. and Xzarina N. ( 2013 ) . The ocular dehumanization of refugees,Australian Journal of Political Science, 48:4, 398-416

Eunhye Y. and Jeong-W. ( 2014 ) . Love thy neighbour: Explaining refuge seeking and hosting, 1982-2008,International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 55 ( 1 ) 45–72

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