A REVIEW OF PAKISTAN’S FOREIGN POLICY 1980-2004 SUCCESSESS AND FAILURES CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Formulation of foreign policy of a country is a complicated process. It implies consideration of long term and short term interests of a state. Policy at the same time is required to be dynamic, as it has to be modified or changed with the changing global scenario. Foreign policy of any country is based on numerous determinants that can be divided into variable and invariable factors. The invariable factors relate to immutable realities such as geography, history, ideology, and ethnic and cultural interests.
Variable factors that influence foreign policy are government structures, composition of national elites, economic structures and public opinion. The personality and caliber of political leaders and the role of armed forces usually function as major determinants of a country’s external relations. Besides these immutable factors rooted in geography and history and the variable domestic factors mentioned earlier, there are the variables of the international environment, regional as well as global, that constantly need to be assessed in relation to national interests.
A state must interact with other states, regional and international organizations in order to protect its vital national interest and most importantly, its sovereign national identity. The aim of its foreign policy must be so structured as to manipulate the external environment to the best advantage, reducing external pressures on national sovereignty and domestic policy, mobilizing international support on key issues, and creating conditions conducive for domestic economic growth. The first fifty-two years of Pakistan’s existence have been unusually eventful, marked by many ups and downs for the country.
It is difficult and sometimes impossible to predict what will be the end result of the policy chosen. Yet choices have to be made and decisions taken. Foreign policy is often considered the first line of defense of any country. This is probably even more pronounced in the case of Pakistan, which has been beset by a difficult security situation from the very beginning . Pakistan has perceived a threat to its security in the core region of South Asia. The prime determinant of foreign policy has been the security factor.
Another important determinant in the formulation of the Foreign Policy of most third world countries is economic development. Pakistan is no exception to the trend of seeking outside aid to develop its economy. On several crucial occasions, Pakistan’s policy-makers and indeed even the nation as a whole have allowed illusions to get the better of their judgment, resulting in disastrous consequences for the country. This has been a major flaw in the formulation of Pakistan’s foreign policy and unless the policy-makers draw the right lessons from historical experience, such unrealistic evaluations are capable of causing harm to the country.
The other main weakness in the formulation of Pakistan’s foreign policy has been ‘ad hoc’ or the tendency to take decisions to tide over an immediate exigency without any long-term planning. Countries like USA, China, Turkey and Saudi Arabia have influenced the foreign policy of Pakistan. It can be said that over the years, a degree of American influence on Pakistan can be traced in certain instances. Reviewing the past twenty four years of Pakistan’s foreign policy as objectively as possible, Pakistan’s foreign policy has been the desire to safeguard the country’s independence and territorial integrity.
In addition to consideration of security, the other motivation of Pakistan’s foreign policy has revolved around its ideological yearnings, as also its economic interests. Pakistan’s foreign policies have reflected a certain ideological orientation. In the first place, the Pakistani people have always shown a genuine commitment to the concept of Islamic solidarity and have been keen to foster unity among Islamic countries. Pakistan has always taken a deep interest in Islamic issues around the globe, foremost of which have been the Palestinian problem, Afghanistan issue, Bosnia, Chechnya, and Kashmir dispute.
Pakistan’s rivalry with India has been a contributing factor, in establishing friendly relations with Islamic counties; an important plan of Pakistan’s foreign policy. Invasion of USSR in Afghanistan and terrorist attack on 11 September 2001 has affected our foreign policy. Pakistan pursued an active foreign policy aimed at protecting her national security in the wake of continued Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and India’s domineering style and stepped up American presence in the region.
Bilateralism, mutuality of interests, non interference in each other’s internal affairs, the principles of charter of UN, economic development and the augmentation of defence capability through international co-operation were emphasized as guiding principles. 4 One way or the other, Pakistan has diverged from its previous stance on Kashmir and Afghanistan. Changes have taken place in Pakistan’s Kashmir Policy. In an effort to assuage international concerns, President Musharraf has moved away from direct support of the banned Jihadi groups.
Yet Pakistan’s policy includes a just settlement of the Jammu and Kashmir dispute. Threatening and aggressive posturing will not resolve the dispute. Pakistan cannot be coerced or frightened into compromising its principled position on Kashmir. The people of Jammu & Kashmir must be allowed to exercise their right to determine their own future in accordance with the relevant resolution of the UN Security Council . Post 11 September, Pakistan under intense American coercion and warning opted for what apparently appeared to be a complete strategic reversal of its policies.
Over night Pakistan abandoned the Taliban, hosted nearly 48,000 US troops on Pakistani soil and allowed the use of Pakistan Air Force bases for launching military operation against Afghanistan . CHAPTER II HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OF PAKISTAN’S FOREIGN POLICY Historical perspective of Pakistan’s foreign policy falls into six broad phases as appended below: a. 1st Phase. The first period covers the time from the UN enforced cease-fire of 1949 to the 1965 war over Kashmir. During this period Pakistan allied itself with the West by joining the Baghdad Pact and its successor, CENTO, and SEATO.
The primary motivation underlying our membership of these alliances had been the need to redress our defense vulnerability and achieve a reasonable military equilibrium with India. On the whole, it was the quest for arms and aid to be used against India. Kashmir dispute had been the corner stone of foreign policy since India had not yet reconciled herself to emergence of Pakistan. b. 2nd Phase. The second phase runs from 1965 to the 1971 crisis in East Pakistan. The 1965 war, which was sparked by the Jammu and Kashmir issue, had led to a drastic reduction in economic and military assistance to Pakistan.
The increase in defense expenditure together with the decline in foreign assistance compounded economic difficulties and aggravated political problems led by a sense of alienation in East Pakistan. c. 3rd Phase. During the third phase from 1971 to 1989 Pakistan remained engaged in rebuilding itself and facing the challenge of the Soviet military intervention in neighboring Afghanistan, which lasted for over a decade since 1979, and has spawned a conflict that continues to ravage Afghanistan. During this phase Pakistan’s foreign policy has also been influenced by major geo-political transformation in the region.
Such changes which have altered the political environment in the region are Islamic revolution in Iran, Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan and unfolding of new American military strategy. The other issues further straining relations have been the menace of drug trafficking and situation of human rights in Pakistan. d. 4th Phase. The fourth phase covers the period from 1990 to the nuclear tests of May 1998. The year of 1989 and 1990 were turbulent to the extent that developments taking place during this period virtually changed the complexion of the world.
Pakistan like any other country of the world was affected by those changes. Pakistan relations with US warmed by the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan did not keep the same note as there was marked change in the American outlook concerning Pakistan’s role . Two important events from the security perspective took place in 1990. USA clamped economic and military sanctions on Pakistan under the Pressler Amendment (which widened the conventional gap between India and Pakistan). That same year the intensification of the freedom movement in occupied Kashmir led to the massive deployment of Indian troops in occupied Kashmir. . 5th Phase. The fifth phase has witnessed important developments in Pakistan’s foreign policy. These include: the former Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif’s initiative to resume bilateral dialogue with India soon after taking office, the nuclear tests that radically altered the security environment of South Asia, and the crisis in Kargil. These developments, together with the continuing conflict in Afghanistan, represent the major preoccupations of our policy-makers. Meanwhile, trade and economy acquired increasing importance in our foreign relations. . 6th Phase. This phase includes 11 September 2001 terrorist attack on USA and subsequent uprooting of Taliban from Afghanistan, which have not only given a serious jolt to the Muslim renaissance movement across the globe, but also proved a setback to the Muslim freedom struggle. In this phase, Pakistan and India took a number of important initiatives for the normalization of relations, but unfortunately all of them, including the historic Agra Summit, proved unproductive . CHAPTER III OBJECTIVES OF PAKISTAN’ S FOREIGN POLICY
Overriding objective of Pakistan’s foreign policy is to safeguard its sovereignty, security and territorial integrity. Currently, the key objectives of Pakistan’s foreign policy include:a. Preservation of the territorial integrity of Pakistan. b. Settlement of the Jammu and Kashmir dispute. c. Preservation of our nuclear deterrence. d. Development, economic growth and promotion of our economic and commercial interests abroad. e. Promotion of Pakistan’s image as a strong, dynamic and progressive state. f. Close friendship and cooperation with the Islamic world. g.
Strong friendly cooperation with China. h. Mutually beneficial and strong ties with all major powers. j. Durable peace and stability in Afghanistan. k. Promotion of nuclear non-proliferation objectives. l. Combating international terrorism, crime and drug trafficking. Main objectives of Pakistan’s foreign policy have been further elaborated in the ensuing paragraphs. PRESERVATION OF NUCLEAR DETERRENCE On May 11, 1998 India exploded three nuclear devices, followed by two detonations on May 13. These events occurred at Pokhran, in Rajasthan, the site of the blast in 1974.
On May 28, 1998 Pakistan replied with five nuclear explosions in the Chagai district of Balochistan, followed by a further detonation on May 30. Pakistan’s nuclear tests coming in response to India’s nuclear explosions were triggered as a matter of fact by the Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP), s policy of using the nuclear option. Its proactive stand on Jammu and Kashmir asking Pakistan to vacate Azad Kashmir proved to be the key factor in Pakistan’s decision to go nuclear. The Indian nuclear tests in early May 1998 posed one of the gravest security challenges to Pakistan since its independence.
The Indian nuclear tests drastically altered the strategic balance. The hostile statements made by important Indian leaders following the tests verged on nuclear blackmail and underscored dangers to Pakistan in India’s latest bid to establish its hegemony in the region. The Indian political analysts commented that by the testing India had called Pakistan’s “bluff’. This was a dangerous assertion, which could lead to miscalculation and misadventure against Pakistan. It was evident that in the absence of a nuclear umbrella, Pakistan was alone to face a nuclear India.
It became imperative to discard the policy of nuclear ambiguity, demonstrate our nuclear capability and therefore restore the strategic balance in the interest of peace and security in South Asia. Pakistan consequently conducted nuclear test explosions on 28 and 30 May 1998. KASHMIR DISPUTE More than anything else, in the aftermath of independence, it was the Kashmir dispute, which was to create special bitterness in the bilateral relations between Pakistan and India. In fact this has remained the crux of the difficulties between the two countries.
Pakistan has consistently maintained that Kashmir is the core problem between the two countries and without its settlement, on the basis of the UN Resolution; there could be no durable peace in the subcontinent. It has been the single most important cause for the deadlock and adversarial relations, which have continued between India and Pakistan ever since their independence. In fact, two wars have been fought over the Kashmir dispute and the energies of the two countries have been greatly consumed over the unending problems and tension generated by this issue.
Long-standing Jammu and Kashmir dispute poses dangers to peace and stability in south Asia. Kashmir has been the root cause of conflict and tension in the region; now, it has become a nuclear flash point. Kashmir is witness to the gravest human rights violation at the hands of over 700,000 security forces stationed in Indian occupied Kashmir. In the last twelve years, more than 75000 Kashmiris have been martyred and over 90,000 are missing. Hundreds of villages and thousands of houses have been destroyed and burned down.
The international community has to take a strong notice of this situation especially now that we are living in the world where individual human rights are also a matter of international concern. Pakistan believes that the international community, in particular the United Nations and the major powers, has an important role to play in persuading India to stop its repression against the Kashmiris. FRIENDSHIPS AND COOPERATION WITH ISLAMIC WORLD Pakistan’s reaction to the threat perceived to its security within the region was to turn to the US and then to the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) o offset the asymmetry of power in South Asia. Yet, such was Pakistan perception of its insecurity that it felt the need to increase its list of allies. This motivated Pakistan to look to the Muslim world. The prime determinant of Pakistan’s relationship with Muslim world was Pakistan’s perception of the extent to which its relations with its co-religionists would strengthen its position in South Asia. Pakistan attaches a special value to its relations with Islamic countries and is committed unreservedly to all Muslim causes and is strengthening cooperation among Islamic countries.
This has been an unshakable pillar of our foreign policy. Pakistan has earned the esteem of the Islamic world for its consistent and effective advocacy of Muslim causes, especially at the United Nations. The special relations that Pakistan maintains with the countries of the Middle East have a historical, cultural, religious, strategic and economic basis. Over the years Pakistan and the Gulf States have shown marked awareness of each other’s security concerns. This has been a continuing process, unaffected by changes of government or other factors in the international environment.
Pakistan’s support for Arab causes, beginning with the de-colonization process in the Middle East and North Africa and our continuing commitment to Palestinian self-determination, is rooted in our national ethos, and dates back to Pakistan’s own creation. Similarly the Arab states have shown understanding and support for our position on Kashmir. The reaction of Arab governments to the nuclearization of South Asia and the recent crisis along the Line of Control in Kashmir has reinforced the shared perceptions and commonality of interests that we have with them.
Pakistan’s principled stand on the Gulf crisis has won it respect and credibility. Pakistan has a particular interest in cooperating with neighboring Iran, with which it had occasionally difficult relations after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. In more recent years, however, delegations have been exchanged, and Pakistan has sold military equipment to Iran. Pakistan also has military ties with Turkey and would like to use these, as well as its Iranian connections, as a bridge to the new Muslim states of Central Asia. When the situation in Afghanistan again becomes normal,
Pakistan will no doubt attempt to capitalize on the support it gave the mujahidin by forging close military links to its second-most important neighbor to the west. The historic, cultural and religious ties Pakistan has with Turkey have been reinforced by their partnership first in the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) and now in the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). Turkey is an important strategic neighbor of Pakistan and a partner in regional peace and security; maintaining close ties with Turkey is a major element of our foreign policy. Bilateral relations between Pakistan and Turkey remain close and fraternal.
RELATIONS WITH CHINA Pakistan has enjoyed a remarkably close relationship with China almost from the very early years of its independence. Considering that two countries have been ideologically a apart, and have at times even belonged to two opposite military blocs, Pakistan-China friendship has aroused considerable curiosity and various explanations have been offered for this seemingly old couple. An analysis of the history of the relationship reveals that the two countries had proceeded step by step towards friendship on the basis of mutuality of interests, which overcame ideological differences.
China’s friendship with Pakistan reached its peak during the Indo-Pak war in September 1965. China not only denounced India for its aggression against Pakistan but also applied strong military pressure on India to stop the war. Friendship between Pakistan and China has remained unaffected by the 1971 War. The Chinese have continued to extend significant moral and material support to Pakistan . TIES WITH MAJOR POWERS Pakistan is committed to the continuous development of beneficial and strong relations with all major powers. Our friendly relationship with China is exemplary.
Our ties with the United States have a long history of cooperation, which need to be reinforced in the new post cold war situation. The transformed global environment must also define and strengthen our relations with Russia. The European Union, Far East and South East Asia are emerging as new economic power centers and major partners of Pakistan in trade, economic and technological cooperation. Our foreign policy is designed to integrate Pakistan into the new global dispensation where trade, economic and technological development and the information revolution have assumed primacy.
Pakistan attaches great importance to its cooperation with the members of the G-8 and the European Union, with which it enjoys close and cordial relations. RELATIONS WITH USA US-Pakistan cooperation began in the mid 1950s as a security arrangement based on US concern over Soviet expansion and Pakistan’s fear of neighbouring India . Pakistan opted for the US alliance because of its perceived need. Pak US relations lacked warmth before 1979 because of their policy towards third world country was guided by the doctrine of “regional influential. In 1979 two major developments took place in this area which influenced Pakistan’s foreign policy as well as reactivated Americans interest in the Pakistan. Firstly Islamic revolution in Iran and secondly Soviet’s military intervention in the Afghanistan. Significant improvement was experienced in US-Pak relations especially during 1985-86 due to share perception of regional security environment in the backdrop of Afghanistan problem. In the course of time, Pakistan felt that US did not meet its security requirement to the extent that Pakistan wanted.
America would not compromise its global interests to fulfil Pakistan’s security needs. Pakistan was a failed state till a few seconds before the bombing of WTC twin towers on September11, 2001. President Clinton had put Pakistan on notice during his brief visit to Pakistan in March 2000. Post September11, United States reclaimed this strategic delinquent into a vital US strategic ally with protestations more vocal than Caesar could have ever done. AFGHANISTAN CONFLICT Afghanistan ahs always been an important foreign policy issue for Pakistan. Afghanistan shares a twelve hundred miles frontier with Pakistan.
The two neighbours share a common religion ‘Islam’ and in part a common ethnicity. The economic factors, tribal affiliation and religious affinity also exercise some impact on the Afghan perception of Pakistan. Pakistan’s security concerns dictated a strong stand against developments in Afghanistan. The conflict in Afghanistan has also been a continuing source of concern to us. Pakistan has suffered more than any other country from the continuation of the conflict there. We therefore seek peace, stability and national reconciliation in Afghanistan.
This will open new opportunities in our economic and commercial relations with the Central Asian States . Pakistan has set great store in having a friendly government in Kabul and repeatedly gotten involved in Afghan internal politics in order to influence the nature of its regime. For instance, after the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Pakistan joined with the US in supporting opposition to the Soviet occupation force; this support included backing extremist Mujahadeen guerrilla groups, which then created its own set of problems for Pakistan once the Soviets withdrew a decade later.
The invasion situation created a great problem for Pakistan’s security and because of sharing of 3 million Afghan refugees. The chaos that ensued following the Soviet withdrawal precipitated Pakistan’s decision to take the militant Islamic student movement, which became the Taliban under its wing. However, post the September 11th attacks, the environment changed, forcing Musharraf to reevaluate his options. In short, according to the Pakistani press, the US gave Pakistan two choices: the Modern Age or the Stone Age.
Faced with such a stark choice, Musharraf decided to cut the Taliban loose. In exchange for promises of aid and the lifting of US sanctions, Pakistan offered to assist the US logistically and to provide access to its airspace in support of US operations into Afghanistan. . PAKISTAN ROLE IN UN Pakistan joined the UN on September 30, 1947, and has been an active participant in the UN and its specialized agencies and other bodies, as well as in various specialized UN conferences. Pakistan’s view of the UN has necessarily been conditioned by its own needs and experience.
Although recognizing the shortcomings and powerlessness of the UN in many situations, Pakistan has seen no alternative to the UN as a forum where weaker countries could appeal to the world’s conscience against the actions of stronger powers. Consequently, Pakistan has called for solutions to international problems through UN auspices, most notably for resolution of the Kashmir issue. Pakistan also played a highly visible role in UN peacekeeping efforts. Pakistan’s participation in other international organizations, including SAARC and the ECO, reflect its desire to be an influential player in the geographic region of which it is a part.
In addition, Pakistan has played a leading role in the OIC. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF PAKISTAN’S FOREIGN POLICY 1980-2004 Important determinants, which affect the foreign policy of Pakistan, are analysed as under: a. Nuclear Deterrence. The Pakistani action to detonate nuclear devices on 28 and 30 May1998 was motivated primarily by similar tests conducted in India on May 11 and 13 and was taken by Pakistan’s nuclear weapon decision-making apparatus, comprising the military and the civil bureaucracy, including nuclear scientists.
Preservation of a credible nuclear deterrence is considered essential for re-establishing the strategic balance in the region. b. The Kashmir Dispute. The Kashmir Issue is deliberated as under: (1)For the last five decades, the issue of Kashmir has been a source of agony and war anxiety between Pakistan and India and a continuous threat to the security of the region. Despite various efforts to solve the conflict, both Pakistan and India failed to find a solution of the problem .
However, analysis of Kashmir issue reveals that the path of confrontation has harmed Pakistan more than it has harmed India. Even on the basis of cost effectiveness, policy- makers in Pakistan need to ask them as to what have been the net gains achieved by the unending confrontation. The hard and unpleasant truth is that confrontation has not been beneficial for Pakistan. (2)A tailor made-opportunity has been provided to the oppressors of genuine freedom movement such as in Kashmir, Palestine and elsewhere to suppress these by tarring them with the terrorist brush.
India has lost no time in making con-man cause with the West against ‘Islamic Militancy’ and using this bogey to isolate and crush the Kashmir freedom movement . Moreover, India is using the bogey of Al-Qaeda’s presence in Pakistan to highlight the charges of Pakistan’s nuclear assets falling into terrorist hands and to suggest the advisability of taking out these assets or destroying these by means of a preemptive strike. India also uses the preemptive strategy of the Bush administration as a justification for its own threatened action against targets in Azad Kashmir and Pakistan . 3). It has been learnt in the past that the military option in Kashmir has failed miserably. It is a political issue and will have to be settled by political means. India had deployed about 700,000 armed forces to crush the Kashmiri people. Since 1989, Indian security forces had killed over 75,000 persons in the occupied valley and still India had no success to break the will of Kashmiri people for self-determination. Pakistan, on the other hand, cannot use violent ways to agitate or take the Kashmir valley militarily. War is not an option now or later.
But recognition of this reality does not mean that Pakistan must necessarily accept the finality of the status quo. Pakistan has to realize that there is no quick solution to the Kashmir problem and Pakistan has to have a new and more workable longer-term policy to secure a solution to the Kashmir issue (4)The qualitative difference now in the power equation is that both countries possess nuclear capability as well as missiles, which can reach each other’s cities and wreak total havoc in both countries in the case of a nuclear war.
The premise, therefore, has to be that everything must be done to avoid the Indo-Pak war. For the sake of Kashmir, going to war with India or defeating it militarily is simply not viable options for Pakistan. c. Islamic World. Pakistan attaches close friendship and cooperation with Islamic world since Pakistan’s policy towards the Muslim world is dictated by dual factors. On the one hand there was the entirely emotive aspect rooted in history, tradition and religion. On the other, there is the practical aspect, which is concerned with Pakistan’s search for security since its inception .
Despite of Pakistan’s best relations with Arabs and other Islamic countries, Pakistan has only received limited assistance in the past from these countries in confrontation with India. Under the circumstances, it would be risky to make any strategic planning for the future on the promise of any kind of solid support from the Arab and Islamic world for Pakistan in its conflict with India. Pakistan-Iran relations today are a far cries of the once most trust-worthy and closet ties.
Though the leadership of the two countries have tried to play down the differences, but sadly, has been unable to check the slide. At times the two countries have appeared to be hostages of events taking place around them. d. Relations with China. Relations with china are cogitated as appended below: (1)Relations with china continue to be one of the pillars of our foreign policy. The breadth of this “all weather” relationship is exemplified by the numerous contacts at all levels and in all spheres.
Pakistan and China have traditionally extended support to each other on matters of concern to them whether it is Kashmir, Taiwan or human rights. From the security perspective our foreign policy is aimed at further promoting and strengthening our traditional, close and cooperative relations with China. The two countries share perceptions on the international situation and our common reading of global strategic trends reinforces co-ordination and cooperation between Pakistan and China. China is the only major power that shares our concerns regarding India’s regional ambitions.
China adopted a principled position on the South Asian nuclear tests expressing grave concern over India’s tests. (2)China is a tried and tested friend of Pakistan. Beijing has helped Islamabad in multifarious ways. The list of Chinese assistance in building our economic and military strength is long and impressive . The Pakistan-China strategic relationship has been the most predominant and overriding objective of Pakistan’s foreign policy. Pakistan’s strategic alliance with china remained unchanged post September 11th.
By the spring of 2002, events like defence pact with China for joint defence research and production, exchange of high level defence visits and construction of Gwadar port have taken place . (3)However, China no longer needs Pakistan in the manner it did in the 1960s and the 1970s, though it continues to show every good will towards Pakistan and remains helpful to the latter in concrete ways, Nevertheless, it would be unwise for Pakistan policy- makers to expect China to give the kind of assistance, which it did in the past in any kind of confrontation with India . Pak-Japan Relations. By and large Pakistan’s relations with Japan have enjoyed a reasonable level of cordiality. One major factor that accounts for such a state of relationship is Japan’s correct understanding of the regional disputes and sources of tensions. In addition, Japan’s economic interactions along with its efforts for regional peace are fully appreciated by the regional actors. The continued Japanese involvement in the region is indeed a good sign for the region in general and for Pakistan in particular . f. Relations with USA.
A cursory analysis of Pak-US relations reveals the following: (1)Our relations with US have never cultivated conducive environment for friendship, healthy diplomatic linkage and a mutual trust. The loss gain calculus reveals that Pakistan has not been able to capitalize on American friendship rather have been used many times to fulfill American interest. (2)Pakistan’s foreign policy decision-makers never followed a calculated approach to sort out their priorities in the light of ever-changing global geopolitical scenario. Their short sightedness has caused more harms than any desired benefits. 3)At least until the September 11 incident, the Pakistan-US bilateral relations were strained because of the several differences of perceptions between the two nations. In the early half of 2001, the relationship revolved around at least three issues i. e. signing of Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), Pakistan’s close ties with the Taliban and the military rule in Pakistan . (4)The United States is committed in building a long-term relationship with Pakistan based on shared interests and on its own merits is a reiteration of what has been repeatedly put on record by US officials, high and low, since September 11th.
The unpredictable nature of US relations in the past, not only with Pakistan but other nations also, prompts us, however, to look at these overtures with uncertainty and examine them critically . (5)Events taking place after September 11th have drastically changed the dynamics of West Asia. Pakistan that for the first eight months of 2001, was a low priority area for world because of the military take-over and the involvement of religious extremist forces of the country, in terrorist acts in different parts of the world, suddenly became the focus of changes in the periphery.
So much so that the USA, which had given cold shoulder to Islamabad since the nuclear tests of May 1998 and the military takeover of October 1999, developed a change of heart for the regime of General Musharraf . g. Afghanistan Conflict. Implications of Afghanistan conflict are appended below: (1)Pakistan played an oversized role in Afghanistan in the context of Soviet military intervention in that country with the support of the US. However, when the Soviet Union withdrew from Afghanistan (1989) and the Soviet Union disintegrated (1991), the Afghanistan-based relationship between Pakistan and the US could not be sustained.
Both developed several complaints against each other . (2)The Musharraf government appeared to be more confident and secure at the end of 2001 after having coped with the agitation of pro-Taliban Islamic parties and groups for dislodging the government in October-November 2001. Western, especially the US support to Pakistan in the aftermath of the September 11th attacks, contributed significantly to build Pakistan regime’s confidence . (3)The U-turn in Pakistan-Afghan policy came after October 7, 2001 when the US launched aerial and missile strikes against the Taliban and the Al-Qaeda network in Afghanistan.
Pakistan, believing that it had no plausible choice, joined the US-led coalition against the Taliban and provided necessary support for the America attacks on Afghanistan. (4)Pakistan is paying a heavy price for its fundamentalist’s adventurism, both in terms of a loss of precious human lives and in the threats it constantly faces from the world’s powerful states of tough economic and military sanctions for its close ties with the Taliban government and what was perceived as its links with terrorist networks . 5)Joining the American coalition had wider consequence as well. It meant ditching the Taliban and giving up the favorite theory of a friendly Afghanistan, which provides strategic depth to Pakistan. Now, under the pressure of external circumstances, Pakistan military rulers were abandoning a sacred policy overnight. Something, it bears remembering they were never inclined to do on their own. However, getting rid of the Support Taliban policy was a blessing for Pakistan . (6)For Its part, Pakistan has borne a large part of the brunt of the post-September 11 happening.
While its switch away from the Taliban ended its international isolation and economic sanctions, the fallout of the US-led military operations in Afghanistan has stymied the expected dividend from its new role as a front-line state in the war against terror. Foreign and domestic investment continues to be shy, while commitment on tariff relaxation for Pakistan export and related economic benefits continues to be largely unrealized because of the unstable regional security environment . h. Internal Security. Today, it is very hard to determine where internal boundaries end and external boundaries begin as the boundaries between nternal and external threat are almost blurred. Although, geographically the boundaries are well defined, these are not discernible anymore in terms of impacts and relationships. This has caused the foreign office to make the foreign policy fully compatible with internal concerns of the Pakistan. Presently Pakistan is faced with economy crisis, crisis of national cohesion, crisis of governance and vicious circle of impoverishment leading to violence, conflict, breakdown of institutions, fear about the future, crisis of infra structure, administrative mismanagement, breakdown of law and order etc. . Economy. Like any other country, economy is the fundamental factor in formulation of Pakistan’s foreign policy. Due to financial mismanagement and a variety of reasons, the economy is in a terrible mess. The economic development, which one must recognize as the foundation of national capability of Pakistan, is also under the influence of a number of factors such as economic development, population growth, foreign trade, natural resources and foreign aid etc. CHAPTER V CONCLUSION
Realism and a cold calculation of national interests should become the hallmark of the foreign policy of Pakistan in the twenty-first century. For its very self-preservation, Pakistan would have to say goodbye to over-ambition and ad hoc which have done so much harm already to the country in the first fifty-seven years of its existence. While the preservation of Pakistan’s sovereign independence and territorial integrity should be the overriding objectives, internal consolidation and high economic growth would need to become the main priorities.
Peace with honour, without comprising on principled stance on Kashmir, with India and the promotion of regional cooperation should be adopted as the immediate policy objectives. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, however, had a profound effect on Pakistan’s geopolitical situation. Pakistan became a frontline state in the Cold War. Altogether more than 3 million Afghan refugees fled to Pakistan, and the country became a base for mujahidin fighting against the Soviet forces and the Afghan communists.
Pakistan also became a conduit for military assistance by the United States and others to the mujahidin. After the Soviet Union completed its troop withdrawal from Afghanistan in February 1989, warfare continued between the mujahidin and the Afghan communist government in Kabul. The demise of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, however, resulted in a reassessment of Pakistan’s foreign policy, particularly in light of the sweeping restructuring of central and southwest Asia. The Afghan resistance had been unable to unseat the Kabul regime.
The heavy burden of the Afghan refugees continued, and Pakistan wanted to be in a position to establish linkages with the newly emerging Central Asian republics of the former Soviet Union. Pakistan decided in early 1992 to press for a political settlement. The communist government in Kabul was ousted in May 1992 and replaced by a fragile coalition of various mujahidin factions. But the coalition did not include the most radical of the Islamist mujahidin leaders, Gulbaddin Hikmatyar. Kashmir conflict is considered a core issue of contention between Pakistan and India.
Pakistan has continued its principled stance on Kashmir, which needs to be resolved according to UN resolution. Pakistan attaches great importance to relations with Islamic countries. China’s position with Pakistan has not changed vis-a-vis September 11th incidents. Rather, both the countries have come closer and a number of beneficial contracts have been signed between the both countries. Relations with major powers remained cordial and a certain improvement in relations with USA has been witnessed.
Pakistan desires a continuous stable Afghanistan for that Pakistan has changed her pro Taliban policies. The ability to formulate and conduct an effective foreign policy will be acquired only through a considerable revamping of our policy making institutions as well as the ability to cope with the rapidly changing regional and global scenario. For a country with our security challenges and ideological links, foreign policy is not only the first line of defence, but also the main vehicle for economic interaction with the rest of the world.
In the coming century we must encourage research and innovation on the one hand, and the widest possible participation of all elements of our society in this vital sphere on the other. Whatever foreign policy decision are taken should not be based on ad hoc and uncoordinated considerations, but should be rooted in careful and systematic analysis. The ability to formulate and conduct an effective foreign policy will be acquired only through a considerable revamping of our policy making institutions as well as the ability to cope with the rapidly changing regional and global scenario. CHAPTER VI RECOMMENDATIONS
Keeping international, regional environments and emerging geo-political scenario in view and to make our foreign policy successful biased, following is recommended: a. Pakistan should continue its policy of defusing tension with India and refrain from steps likely to lead to military escalation: It should give top priority to curbing terrorism and promoting good governance and economic and social betterment. b. In the event of India continuing to refuse to negotiate on Kashmir dispute, Pakistan must continue its diplomatic and political efforts for the settlement without, of course, provoking a military confrontation with India c.
Through concerted efforts, Pakistan should win the sympathy of International Community specially US, European Union, Japan, Russia and China in favour of Kashmiris and highlight the atrocities committed upon them by Indian forces. d. Pakistan should develop a close and trusting relationship with Iran. While Pakistan is well placed to use its good offices between the US and Iran, the latter can be helpful in smoothing Pakistan’s relations with the dominant Northern Alliance elements in Kabul regime and with certain Central Asian States. e.
Pakistan government should adopt a balanced line of action without compromising its integrity, honour and national sovereignty. At the same time it should make a passionate appeal to all global forces to uphold justice and take every measure to uphold human dignity, honour and fundamental rights, enshrined in UN charter and propagated by all religions. f. Pakistan government should strive for a peaceful, stable, and prosperous home base, so that the success of the ongoing domestic reform programmes is ensured for making a positive impact on the rest of the world.
The second key element, namely, constructive and forward looking goals should be constantly reviewed and expedited with the participation of all elements of the population, including the media. Lastly, persons qualified to face contemporary challenges whose skills are constantly improved, must man the apparatus of diplomacy within the government. g. Pakistan should continue to enjoy an important advantage by virtue of its geo-strategic location. It holds the access to the sea for its northern neighbours. It has a linchpin between the Middle East, Central and South Asia. . Pakistan should endeavour to establish meaningful economic co-operation with its neighbours in Central Asia. This requires a stable and peaceful Afghanistan for the development of transit trade. It will clearly be in Pakistan’s interest to make every possible effort to promote peace and stability in Afghanistan. j. Pakistan should support anti terrorism campaign and lend willing support to all political initiatives for settling Afghan issue more expeditiously so that we benefit from trade potential of Central Asian region. k.
Pakistan should continue to preserve a credible nuclear deterrence for re-establishing strategic balance in the region. l. Pakistan should show a genuine commitment to the concept of Islamic solidarity among Islamic countries and take keen interest in establishing friendly relations with Islamic countries. However, at the same time, Pakistan should not expect any solid support from the Arab and Islamic world in its conflict with India. m. Pakistan should continue a close and mutually beneficial relationship with China. However, Pakistan should not expect any solid support from China as it had been receiving in 1960s and 1970s. n.
Pakistan should have cordial and mutually beneficial relationships with major powers including USA, European Union, Russia and Japan etc. pPakistan needs, above all, internal cohesion and national unity. This seems to be sadly missing. Moreover, to take on India, Pakistan needs to have a vibrant economy. It is a country’s economic health, which can be much more crucial to its survival. If a country has the money, arms and equipment can always be secured. q. Pakistan should curb religious extremism and terrorism to improve its image abroad. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Khan,Musa Jalalzai. Pakistan’s foreign Policy, Pakistan: Printing Talent, 2002.
M, Shahid Amin. Pakistan’s Foreign Policy, Pakistan: Oxford, 2000. Mahdi, Niloufer. Pakistan’s Foreign Policy, Pakistan: Ferozsons, 1999. Dr Safdar Mahmood International Affairs, Pakistan: Jang Publisher 2003 ARTICLES Periodical Articles Gupta ,Anit , “Pakistan-US Relation” Current Affair Digest, Oct 2002, p. 73. Cole, Juan, “Pakistan’s Foreign and domestic policy since September 11th 01 May2002” p. 2-3. Mahmood, Themina, “Peaceful Resolution of Kashmir Dispute India’s Avoidance” Pakistan Horizon, Oct 2001 p. 23. Subhash, Dr, “Pakistan and China Relations Post September 11, 2001: Analysis” South Asia Analysis group.
Newspaper Articles “Bridging the Polarity”, “ Dawn”, 10 September 2002, p. 7. “Pak-China Relation” “The Nation”, 5 Aug 2002, p. 8. “Pakistan-Japan relationship”, “The News”, 9th Jun 2002,p. 11. “US-Pakistan relations”, “The Nation”, 1 Aug 2002,p. 8. “September 11 and Pakistan”, “ Dawn”, 13 Sep 2002, p. 7. “The world after September 11”, “ Dawn”, 10 Sep 2002, p. 7. UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL President Musharraf “Address at the 57th Session of UN General Assembly”, 12 Sep 2002. Web-Site Ministry of Foreign Affair’s Web www. mofa. gov. pk/ForeignPolicy. html Ministry of Foreign Affair’s, Web www. Forisb. org/Foreign Policy. html