It is a relationship through which one individual influences the behaviour or actions of other people. A leader must hold followings. Leaderships create a vision and so pass on the vision to his followings. Leader energies, inspire and motivate others to interpret the vision into accomplishment. A good leader must hold qualities, personality, features or ‘traits ‘ . Leadership traits include personal magnetic attraction or personal appeal ( gift from GOD ) , interpersonal accomplishments, analytical thought, imaginativeness, decision, trustiness, strength, self motive, flexibleness and vision. There are some manners of leading:
The director makes all the determinations and issues instructions which must be obeyed without inquiry.
Quick determinations can be made when velocity is required
It is most efficient type of leading for extremely programmed, everyday work
Communication between the director and subsidiary will be one manner. There may be deficiency of helpful feedback
It does non promote part or enterprise from subsidiaries
The trough still makes all the determinations, but explains them to subsidiaries, and efforts to actuate subsidiaries to transport them out volitionally.
Selling determinations to staff might do them more willing
Staff will hold a better thought of what to make when unanticipated events originate in their work, because the director will hold explained his connotations.
Subordinates will non needfully be committed to determinations in which they have non been involved
There is no part or feedback of subsidiaries
Leader and followings make the determination together, on the footing of consensus, or via media and understanding.
It can supply high committedness to the determination reached
It takes advantage of the cognition and expertness of persons in different countries, for high quality, flexible determination devising
The authorization of the director might be undermined
Decision doing might go a really long procedure
Clear cut determinations might be hard to make
The director confers with subsidiaries and takes their positions and feelings into history, but retains the right to do the concluding determination.
Employees are involved in determinations. This encourages motive through greater involvement and engagement.
Employees can lend cognition and experience, to assist in work outing jobs related to their work.
it might take longer to make determinations
subsidiaries might be limited in their point of view on organisational issues
if the director does non take employees advice, they might comprehend the procedure to be nonmeaningful
P7: explicate the different motivational theories and their application within the workplace
Motivation is the driving force which causes us to accomplish ends. Motivation may be rooted in the basic demand to minimise physical hurting and maximise pleasance, or it may include specific demands such as feeding and resting, or a coveted object, end, province of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less evident grounds such as selflessness, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality.
Taylor made the first serious effort to analyse worker motive in order to rede direction on the best ways to increase worker public presentation or productiveness. The techniques he used of set uping an thought or an hypothesis, analyzing and entering public presentation at work, changing working methods and re-recording public presentation are still used in modern industry. This attack has become known as ‘scientific direction ‘ due to the elaborate recording and analysis of consequences that it involved. His chief purpose was to cut down the degree of inefficiency that existed in the US fabrication industry. The range for efficiency additions in early 20th century fabrication workss was immense. The huge mass of workers were untrained and non-specialized. They were ill led by supervisors and directors with small or no formal preparation in covering with people. There was normally no formal choice or assessment system of staff and many were recruited on a day-to-day or hebdomadal footing with no security of employment.
How to better productiveness ( Taylor ‘s scientific attack ) :
Choice workers to execute a undertaking.
Detect them executing the undertaking and note the cardinal elements of it.
Record the clip taken to make each portion of the undertaking.
Identify the quickest method recorded.
Train all workers in this quickest method and make non let them to do any alterations in it.
Supervise workers to guarantee that this ‘best manner ‘ is being carried out and to clip them to look into that the set clip is non being exceeded.
Pay workers on the footing of consequences ( based on the theory of economic adult male )
The theory of ‘economic adult male ‘ was widely held, and Taylor himself supported this impression. The position was that adult male was driven or motivated by money entirely and the lone factor that could excite farther attempt was the opportunity of gaining excess money. He ever maintained that workers should be paid a ‘fair twenty-four hours ‘s wage for a just twenty-four hours ‘s work ‘ and that the sum should be straight linked up to end product through a system known as ‘piece rate ‘ . This means paying workers a certain sum for each unit produced. To promote high end product a low rate per unit can be set for the first units produced and so higher rates become collectible if end product marks are exceeded.
Elton Mayo is best known for his ‘Hawthorne Effect ‘ decisions. These were based on a series of experiments he and his squad conducted over a five twelvemonth period at the Hawthorne mill of Western Electric Co. in Chicago. His work was ab initio based on the premise that working conditions ( lightning, warming, remainder periods and so on ) had a scientific consequence on workers ‘ productiveness. Experiments were undertaken to set up the optimal on the job conditions at all. The consequences surprised all perceivers, as lightning and all other conditions were changed, both improved and worsened, so productiveness rose in all groups including the control group. This forced Mayo to accept that:
Working conditions in themselves were non that of import in finding productiveness degrees
Other motivational factors needed to be investigated farther before decisions could be drawn.
Subsequent experiments were carried out with a group of assembly line workers. Changes to rest periods, payment systems, assembly bench layout and canteen nutrient were made at 12 hebdomad intervals. Crucially, before every major alteration, the research workers discussed the new alterations with the work group. At the terminal of the experiments the on the job conditions and work hours were returned to how they had been before the start of the test. Output rose far above the original degree.
Maslow hierarchy theory:
Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands is a theory in psychological science, proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943. Then in 1954 this theory was to the full expressed in his book Motivation and Personality. Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands is frequently portrayed in the form of a pyramid, with the largest and most cardinal degrees of demands at the underside, and the demand for self-actualization at the top. The most cardinal and basic four beds of the pyramid contain what Maslow called ‘deficiency demands ‘ or ‘d-needs ‘ : regard, friendly relationship and love, security, and physical demands. With the exclusion of the most cardinal ( physiological ) needs, if these ‘deficiency demands ‘ are non met, the organic structure gives no physical indicant but the single feels dying and tense. Maslow ‘s theory suggests that the most basic degree of demands must be met before the person will strongly want ( or concentrate motive upon ) the secondary or higher degree demands.
Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands, represented as a pyramid with the more basic demands at the underside:
This hierarchy was interpreted by Maslow as follows:
persons ‘ demands start on the lowest degree
one time one degree of demand has been satisfied, worlds will endeavor to accomplish the following degree
self-actualization or self-realization is non reached by many people but everyone is capable of making their potency
one time a demand has been satisfied it will no longer motivate persons to action, therefore when stuff demands have been satisfied the offer of more money will non increase productiveness
Herzberg and the ‘Two factor theory ‘ :
Despite establishing his research on merely 200 professionally qualified workers, Herzberg ‘s decisions and celebrated two factor theory have had the greatest impact on motivational patterns since Taylor ‘s work about 60 old ages soonest. His research was based around questionnaires and interviews with employees with the connotation of discovering:
those factors that led to them holding really good feelings about their occupations and
those factors that led to them holding really negative feelings about their occupations.
His decisions were that:
Job satisfaction resulted from five chief factors: accomplishment, acknowledgment for accomplishment, the work itself, duty and promotion. He called these factors the ‘motivators ‘ . He considered the last three to be the most important.
Job dissatisfaction resulted from five different factors: company policy and disposal, supervising, salary, relationships with others and working conditions. He termed these ‘hygiene factors ‘ . These were the factors that surround the occupation itself ( extrinsic factors ) instead than the work itself ( intrinsic factors ) .
Herzberg considered that the hygiene factors had to be addressed by direction to forestall dissatisfaction, but even if they were in topographic point they would non, by themselves, make a well-motivated work force.
Vroom ‘s theory:
Vroom ‘s theory assumes that behavior consequences from witting picks among options whose intent it is to maximise pleasance and minimise hurting. The cardinal elements to this theory are referred to as Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence.
The Expectancy Theory of Victor Vroom trades with motive and direction. Vroom ‘s theory assumes that behavior consequences from witting picks among options whose intent it is to maximise pleasance and minimise hurting. Together with Edward Lawler and Lyman Porter, Vroom suggested that the relationship between people ‘s behaviour at work and their ends was non every bit simple as was foremost imagined by other scientists. Vroom realized that an employee ‘s public presentation is based on persons ‘ factors such as personality, accomplishments, cognition, experience and abilities. The anticipation theory says that persons have different sets of ends and can be motivated if they believe that:
There is a positive correlativity between attempts and public presentation,
Favorable public presentation will ensue in a desirable wages,
The wages will fulfill an of import demand,
The desire to fulfill the demand is strong plenty to do the attempt worthwhile.
P8: Assess the relationship between motive theory and the pattern of direction.
Payment or fiscal wages system:
Hourly pay rate:
This is the most common manner of paying manual, clerical and ‘non-management workers ‘ . An hourly ‘time rate ‘ is set for the occupation – possibly by comparing with other houses or similar occupations – and the pay degree is determined by multiplying this by the figure of hours worked. This entire is normally paid hebdomadally.
A rate is fixed for the production of each unit, and the workers ‘ rewards therefore depend on the measure of end product produced. The piece rate can be adjusted to reflect the trouble of the occupation and the ‘standard ‘ clip needed to finish it. These issues are determined by work survey. The degree of the rate can be really of import. If set excessively low it could demotivate the workers but if excessively high it could cut down the inducements, because workers will be able to run into their mark pay degree by bring forthing comparatively few units.
This is an one-year amount that is normally paid on a monthly footing. It is the most common signifier of payment for professional, supervisory and direction staff. The salary degree is fixed each twelvemonth and it is non dependent on the figure of hours worked ( clip rate ) or the figure of units produced ( piece rate ) . The repair of the salary degree for each occupation is a really of import procedure because it helps to find the position of that station in the whole organisation. Job rating techniques may be used to help in make up one’s minding the salary sets and the differences between them. In most organisations, all occupations will be put into one of a figure of salary sets and the precise income earned within each set will depend upon experience and advancement. It is ever possible to derive publicity to another occupation in a higher salary set. Firms that are interested in making a ‘single position ‘ within their organisation are now progressively seting all staff – manual and managerial – on to one-year wages to give the benefits of security and position to all employees.
Example of salary sets:
Salary set ( per twelvemonth )
Rs.100000 – Rs.200000
Rs.50000 – Rs.75000
Rs.30000 – Rs.40000
Rs.15000 – Rs.25000
Junior clerical staff
Rs.5000 – Rs.10000