Cambodia has a long and eventful history, hearkening back to the Khmer Empire in the 9th century. It became a Gallic settlement in mid 19th century until 1953 when King Sihanouk became the swayer for the following two decennaries. The instruction system during this period was significantly improved as King Sihanouk embarked on an ambitious program to construct many schools and universities. Cambodia remains a constitutional monarchy under King Sihamoni ( Dev, Sharp, & A ; Costa, 2010 ) .
The public instruction system in Cambodia is 12 old ages, six old ages of primary school ( 1-6 ) , three old ages of lower secondary school ( 7- 9 ) , and another three old ages of upper secondary school ( 10-12 ) . The basic instruction in Cambodia is nine old ages, primary school and lower secondary school. All immature people have the same right to go to school without paying money. In 2002, the Education for All ( EFA ) National Plan of Action was announced, and the significance of “ Basic Education ” has developed since so. ( Purcell, Riddell, Taylor, & A ; Vicheanon, 2010 ) .
As can be seen, instruction has been playing important functions in developed and developing states. However, a concern related to increasing the length of clip pupils remain at school is a planetary issue. The net registration ratio in secondary school is a concern to be considered in accomplishing the EFA ends.
Harmonizing to the Education Management Information System ( EMIS ) , the net registration ratio in secondary school is a concern to be considered in accomplishing the EFA ends. Harmonizing to EMIS, net registration ratios in secondary school were really low with 31.9 in lower secondary school and 19.4 in upper secondary school for the School Year 2009/2010. When compared to the statistics of 2008/2009, net registration ratio in lower secondary school decreased by 2 per centum points while in upper secondary school increased by 3 per centum points ( Non-Government Organization [ NGO ] , 2011 ) .
Basically, in order to maintain beef uping the quality and effectivity of educational systems, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports ( MoEYS ) has made attempts by using all processs of ability development for acquisition and instruction at all instruction degrees. The MoEYS has on a regular basis strengthened and updated the course of study and text editions, and the text editions are available for every pupil, one text edition for one topic at every instruction degree. Additionally, the MoEYS has besides tried its best to decrease the repeat and abrasion rates and to increase the completion rates of general instruction. The completion rate in lower secondary instruction has about reached the end and the achievement in upper secondary instruction exceeded the set mark ( MoEYS, 2010 ) .
Students normally apply for their new school twelvemonth on the 1st of October every twelvemonth. In the school twelvemonth 2011-2012, the figure of pupils who applied for grade nine in PPHS was 526, including 245 females. In order to take the national scrutiny for class 10, the class pupils have to finish the scrutiny signifier. However, of the 526 pupils, there were merely 466 who filled the signifier. Unusually, after taking the national test, 436 of the 466 pupils passed, and all of them have applied for their class 10 in twelvemonth 2012-2013. Of the 526 pupils who entered twelvemonth nine, 436 progressed to twelvemonth ten. This gives a dropout rate of 17.11 % ( PPHS, 2012 ) .
The term “ keeping ” and “ abrasion ” as applied to pupils vary in the literature but for the intents of this survey these footings apply to the patterned advance or dropping out of pupils between grade nine and ten ( Lamb, Walstab, Teese, Vickers, & A ; Rumberger, 2004 ) .
Keeping pupil in school for a long clip is non truly easy and student abrasion is a large job in Cambodia. Thousands of pupils drop out every twelvemonth around the state. Furthermore, pupil abrasion is non merely has a cost for persons and households but for the whole state. In Cambodia the dropout rate in the passage from lower to upper secondary school was 21.8 % in 2008-2009. In add-on, dropping out can ensue in many jobs such as, lower criterion of life, adult female society, parents do non see the result of their kids graduating, drug and intoxicant maltreatment, depression and physical unwellness. Acknowledging the fact that the dropout rate at the lower secondary degree is high, the quality of instruction demand to be improved ( NGO, 2009 ) . Therefore, in order to cut down dropout and increase pupil keeping, we have to believe about negative and unfulfilling school experiences, and terrible place and public assistance jobs. These three factors interact with each other and, combined with gender, socio-economic, pupils ‘ academic accomplishment, and ethnicity influences, affect pupils ‘ determinations to go forth school early. International surveies found pupils who were least likely to win were disaffected by their experience of school, and appeared to hold less realistic aspirations than their not-at-risk equals.
To this point, I have pointed to some of the factors which lead pupils to dropout from school. However, as the research inquiries below indicate, the focal point in this survey is on the other side of the coin. That is, on why pupils choose to come on from grade nine to rate 10. If we know why pupils stay in school, school managers will be able to construct on those positive factors to promote more pupils to remain in school.
In position of the above, this survey has set out to research the grounds why pupils decide to come on from lower to upper secondary school in a Phnom Penh high school. Therefore, the two primary research inquiries for the survey are as follows:
What grounds do pupils give for make up one’s minding to come on from grade nine to rate 10s?
To what extent do single factors and factors of the household and school environments play in pupils ‘ determinations to come on to tenth class?
The survey will chiefly supply information that will be used by the school to promote male and female pupils to come on from grade nine to rate 10. My hope is that the research findings will supply one measure that will assist pupils travel on to make higher degrees of instruction and better their life chances. Educated male childs and misss can hold benefits non merely for the state but besides for the whole universe. Furthermore, they can hold more productive work end product ( concern, agribusiness, instruction, etc. ) , smaller, more sustainable households, better wellness, and avoid negative societal behaviour such as drug maltreatment.
This research is important in two more ways. First, up to now, there has non been any published research on the factors which influence the determinations of pupils in Kampuchean high schools to come on to rate 10. This survey will get down to make full this spread. Second, as my literature will demo, most international literature focuses on why high school pupils drop-out. However, there is a turning international literature which focuses on the grounds why some pupils decide to finish upper secondary instruction.
This literature reappraisal will concentrate on surveies which discuss the related issues of pupil abrasion and pupil keeping, looking at pupil abrasion foremost. Most literature focal points on pupil abrasion, but as will be seen below ; there are a turning figure of articles on why pupils decide to remain at school.
In order to place the literature for this paper I reviewed both international and national beginnings. The resources used for the literature reappraisal were found in: the Hun Sen Library of the Royal University of Phnom Penh ; and some other well-known web sites of MoEYS, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ) , United Nations Children ‘s Fund ( UNICEF ) , ERIC, James Cook University, Zunia.org, www.acer.edu.au, www.smithfamily.com.au, www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng, and Google Scholar.
The keywords I used for placing relevant literature are divided into three classs such as single pupil factors, household factors and school factors. The literature was categorized into the three subjects described in the keywords above and those subjects or classs have been used to determine the construction of this chapter. A treatment of the literature written in contexts outside of Cambodia is followed by a reappraisal of stuff that focused on the Kampuchean state of affairs. While much of the literature is about pupil abrasion instead than pupil keeping, it is still relevant as factors such as the school environment are relevant to both.
International Literature Review on Student Retention
Gray and Hackling ( 2009 ) in a survey in Australia compared immature pupils who completed secondary schooling, with those who did non complete. These were more likely to see drawn-out periods of unemployment, achieve low-paid and low-skilled occupations and happen it difficult to stabilise occupation security. As a consequence, they seemed to gain less income, depended on authorities support and non actively take portion in community life. But why do pupils go forth school early? There is a important literature on general dropping out, fundamentally in relation to the non-completion of post-compulsory instruction. In one literature reappraisal, research workers identified around 39 possible factors associating to the three chief countries of the person, their household and school life. This was their starting point to look into the grounds why pupils left school under-age ( Brooks, Milne, Paterson, Johansson, & A ; Hart, 1997 ) .
The writers besides searched about societal factors which provide the socio-economic context for the three major factors supra such as unemployment degrees, handiness and cost of lodging and the handiness of community support and services. There was a clear relationship between early school go forthing and socio-economic disadvantage ( Brooks et al. , 1997 ) . I will utilize the three chief countries identified by Brooks et Al ( Brooks et al. , 1997 ) as the BASIC for my literature treatment.
single pupil factors.
The single pupil factor is one of the chief factors which lead to school abrasion. In this factor, low self-pride in the most of import issue taking to under-age departure because it focuses on the hapless self-belief and assurance in their ain ability and value of schooling. Further, there are many other chief factors to impact the pupil public presentation themselves such as ennui and deficiency of motive for acquisition, deficiency of committedness to ends associating to instruction and employment, personal emphasis due to gender-based torment by male childs or instructors, struggle and influence of equals, physical unwellness or disablement, and troubles of larning. More significantly, mental wellness jobs, rational disablement, riotous behaviour, engagement in condemnable activity, intoxicant and other drug usage, hapless academic public presentation, deficiency of literacy accomplishments, and populating in rural and distant countries are besides playing important functions in act uponing immature people to remain off from school ( Brooks et al. , 1997 ) .
Nicaise, Tonguthai and Fripont ( 2000 ) , revealed that pupils were non able to travel to school as their wellness was non strong plenty due to many sorts of unwellness ( diarrhoea, malaria, and respiratory infections ) . What is more, the survey found that diseases may hold a dual, affected on school-going behaviour because kids, particularly misss, were kept place from school to care for ill siblings. “ The full country on the western boundary line of Tak is infested with malaria, all the schools have ‘hardship allowance ‘ which proves how bad the jobs are. These diseases cause the pupils to be weak, become ill really frequently, and miss categories ” ( Nicaise, Tonguthai, & A ; Fripont, 2000, P. 68 ) said a instructor in Tak.
Family factors were a major issue taking to under-age school go forthing. It was connected with matrimonial failure, sibling competition, cultural struggle, rejection of parental values and disconnected and re-formed household constructions which caused by the decease of a parent or divorce. Furthermore, school abrasion can be influenced by physical, mental, emotional or sexual maltreatment in the household, break to schooling caused unemployment flexibleness, hapless household position and homelessness, and parents are non interested in schooling, back uping their kids and do non understand the value of instruction ( Brooks et al. , 1997 ) . Furthermore, Brooks et Al. ( 1997 ) claim that “ Students with chronic household jobs are frequently stateless or are “ proving out ” go forthing place. This tends to intend irregular attending at school and they start to float off from the societal context of school ” ( p.17 ) . In add-on “ Dysfunctional households or household breakdown frequently leads to disruption and traveling about. It ‘s easy for childs in these households to float off from school ” ( Brooks et al. , 1997, p.17 ) .
Similarly, Nicaise, Tonguthai, and Fripont ( 2000 ) , in Thailand, have found that the abrasion in Thailand was affected by household conditions such as detached or dead parents, imprisoned or addicted parents, and drawn-out households. For these fortunes, pupils found it difficult to remain on at school. “ Some parents are drug nuts or drug pedlars and were put in prison so the childs are left to the attention of relations but non anyone for good ” ( Nicaise, et al. , p. 74 ) , ” said Klong Toey. Another pupil in Bangkok Commented:
My parents separated when I was in Prathom 2, four old ages ago. They fought a batch about whom I should remain with, in and out of constabulary Stationss all the clip and took me to remain with assorted relations, in different states. I had to travel around from school to school, I can non retrieve how many, possibly 10, but surely more than five. I came back to this present school for the 3rd clip already ( Nicaise et al. , 2000, p. 73 ) .
The school environment is a major factor act uponing pupils ‘ determinations to remain longer in school or go forth school early. School quality and instructor features may impact how long pupils carry on in school every bit good as their trial tonss in a given school twelvemonth ( Ehrenberg & A ; Brewers, 1994 ) . Similarly, other research workers in Australia argued that grade nine and 10 pupils in Queensland secondary schools accepted that a deficiency of course of study options in lower secondary school led some immature people to lose involvement. They realized that high school would non supply them with the occupation preparation they wanted for work readying. That is to state, learning and larning public presentation in school are tiring, and what they studied from school was non relevant or antiphonal to student demands for employment or life ( Lamb et al. , 2004 ) . “ If pupils see school as drilling and irrelevant, so they see small value in instruction. They face tonss of other force per unit areas to draw them off from school, ” ( Lamb et al. , 2004, p. 19 ) .
In add-on, other jobs included school operation and course of study were non culturally appropriate, pupils and instructors did non acquire along good with each other, deficiency of a lovingness and supportive school environment, deficiency of pupil engagement in school determination devising procedures, and competitory force per unit areas due to examination-dominated appraisal ( Lamb et al. , 2004 ) .
Whannell and Allen ( 2011 ) , at the University of the Sunshine Coast, demonstrated in their survey that a figure of features of the school experience including academic results were relevant to student abrasion and keeping. Most significantly, the pupils ‘ determinations for dropping out were influenced by hapless student-teacher relationships, deficiency of schoolroom attending, and low degrees of academic accomplishment. Therefore, there was a strong association between the quality of academic accomplishment and the quality of the student-teacher relationships.
The most helpful paper I discovered on the grounds why pupils stay at school was by Munns and Parente ( 2003 ) . They investigated why some autochthonal pupils chose to finish high school although most of their fellow autochthonal pupils dropped out. Munns and Parente ( 2003 ) besides surveyed some of the international literature on pupils who win and they argued that many lessons can be learned from the positive narratives of those who overcame obstructions to win. These lessons can be used by school leaders, parents and the pupils themselves to make more educational success. I will utilize Munns and Parente ( 2003 ) as the cardinal text in the treatment of issues of pupil keeping.
single pupil factors.
Individual factors can be negative and positive for pupil ends. Even though Munns and Parente ( 2003 ) addressed some negative issues taking immature people to under-age school go forthing, they emphasized that positive factors played a important function in maintaining many pupils at school.They argued that pupils themselves should construct up their capacity by being provided chances to see success and acquire involved, puting personal ends for stronger educational success and better in relation Fieldss to developments in the society and independent life accomplishments ( Munns & A ; Parente, 2003 ) .
Besides, Munns, and Parente ( 2003 ) reasoned that even though some pupils traditionally became disgruntled and left school, it was indispensable to actuate more hapless and minority-background pupils to maintain remaining at school, instead than reject school. Likewise, the research workers revealed that the pupils were likely to hold willpower to get the better of single challenges and to carry through their educational marks. It meant that pupils had to acquire on with it irrespective personally directed and institutional racism, and the force per unit areas of fall ining many of their friends who had dropped out of school. It was clear that, because their academic accomplishment was accepted as a gateway to occupation chances, the Autochthonal pupils were determined to work hard to accomplish something in their lives.
Family is a 2nd topographic point for immature coevalss to be educated aside from school. And it is a major factor to act upon kids to stay at school every bit good. Harmonizing to a research by Munns and Parente ( 2003 ) , most of the pupils were motivated to make their prep, and given support and advice about their hereafter callings by their households. The writers gave the illustration of a pupil who explained that although their house had a deficiency of room and quiet infinites for survey, the household had helped out. Paula, a pupil, said “ It ‘s quiet, because my sisters know when I need to analyze and they ever go and play in the back lanes and material ” ( p. 7 ) . In add-on, Autochthonal pupils emphasized that their parents ever thought about instruction and provided strong support for them to finish their schooling.
To be clear, for the successful Autochthonal pupils, their households were powerful in supplying critical support for their occupation aspirations and their on-going schooling. The households ‘ support was really of import because in malice of a general deficiency of success in their parents ‘ ain school lives, parents still encouraged them and valued their schooling. In short, the household state of affairss of all Autochthonal pupils were likewise diverse, but with common subjects of support for their instruction and desiring them to hold chances for the hereafter, and cultural supports were important for their staying on at school ( Munns & A ; Parente, 2003 ) .
Munns and Parente ( 2003 ) found that some autochthonal pupils who stayed longer at school than their autochthonal equals thought that school was a good topographic point to be even though they still experienced some racism. One autochthonal pupil who stayed on at school said “ You get a batch more regard which is good and they expect more. You find it easier to travel to category and you can show yourself more ” ( p. 8 ) .
Furthermore, the most of import facet of the school environment was teacher public presentation. Students who received good encouragement and advice from teacher were more likely to remain in school than pupils who did non ( Munns & A ; Parente, 2003 ) .
I got something off the callings advisor. He explains what we need to make, wish to acquire into that sort of class. If we like leave school or anything, and material like that aˆ¦ We normally get a choice sheet of all the classs we want to make, aˆ¦ He normally calls a meeting on what courses we need to make ( Munns & A ; Parente, p. 13 ) .
National Literature Review
School is a really of import influence in easing the hereafter of most immature people. Therefore, the school environment is one of the important factors taking pupils to go forth or stay at school until they complete upper secondary instruction.
As can be seen below, household conditions are one of the cardinal factors act uponing most immature pupils to go forth school early. As a study by Boulet and Kunthea ( 2009 ) makes clear, in instance of assisting a household, some immature pupils have to function their households by working instead than by going educated grownups. “ Parents do n’t understand the importance of instruction, and they do n’t see any immediate additions from it, ” said Theavy, NGO Education Partnership ‘s ( NEP ) instruction and capacity edifice officer.
Similarly, based on a study written by an decision maker, Than argued that poorness is besides a important issue which causes pupils to drop out of school ( Administrator, 2006 ) . Parents are hapless, and they can non back up their kids to analyze. Some kids are populating in hard conditions, hence, they have to halt perusal and do money to back up their households. “ Dropouts are caused by many things ” . “ Some households are hapless and can non afford for their kids even to get down lessons, some allow their kids to get down school but so halt them analyzing as they need the kids to work ” ( p. 2 ) , said Than ( Administrator, 2006 ) .
The term “ school environment ” refers to everything in school such as pupils, instructors, category size, course of study, survey installations, and instruction and acquisition public presentations. Because the course of study and school are sometimes non interesting, some pupils decide non to go on to upper instruction. Sometimes, the lessons that schools include in the course of study are excessively difficult, and pupils find it difficult to understand and pass long clip analyzing these topics. Some topics they study are non relevant to their demands in their existent life. Additionally, the resources are non updated, and the information in the books is besides old ( NEP, 2008 ) .
Furthermore, the instructor ‘s wage besides influences pupil keeping. For case, in order to back up their household instructors have to roll up informal fees during categories by selling lesson paper to pupils. “ If I do n’t purchase them, I will acquire a low mark or I will non go through the test, even though I am an outstanding pupil, ” said one pupil at Chatomuk secondary school ( Boulet & A ; Kunthea, 2009 ) .
Family support is a really influential in assisting pupils remain at school. So the relationship between school and parents is truly of import so that parents and schools help each other. Therefore, in order to make this efficaciously, the MoESY wants a construction called “ School Support Committee ” or “ Parent Teacher Association ” or “ Parent Association ” to be established in each school in Cambodia. In this policy, parents have the chance to acquire involved with every school issue and they understand the necessity of existent parental engagement in instruction. There are other ways excessively that parents can assist their kids larning. Parents can run into instructors on a regular basis, assist kids with their prep, and do certain that pupils are ever at school. More significantly, parents whose kids attend school on a regular basis but who are still at hazard of reiterating or dropping out can take part in parent-teacher meetings. This is an of import manner to retain pupils to remain longer at school ( Bredenberg, 2002 ) .
School is a topographic point to educate immature people, but it can be gratifying or deadening topographic point to remain at. To assist schools be a happy topographic point to analyze, for increasing registration of pupils and class betterments, for decrease of dropout and absence rates, the MoEYS introduced a policy called the “ Child Friendly School ” in 2007. There are six dimensions in this policy: all kids have entree to schooling ; effectual acquisition, wellness, safety and protection of kids, gender reactivity ; the engagement of kids, households and communities in the running of their local school ; and the national educational system support and encouragement for schools to go more child-friendly. It means that every kid has the same right to travel to school, instruction and acquisition must be developed, all kids are taken attention of and healthy, households and communities of their functions and duties, schools become community-support resource centres, and the quality of instruction is be improved nationally ( Bunlay, Wright, Sophea, Bredenburg & A ; Singh, 2010 )
The lone comprehensive research done in Cambodia on kid friendly schools has focused on primary schools. However, many of the factors impacting primary school pupils are besides relevant to high school pupils. In this research, Kheang ( n.d ) had identified some of import factors which are relevant to secondary school such as instructor public presentation, acquisition and instruction activities, pupils ‘ competences and demands, and groups or equals working together and pupil public presentations. Furthermore, he expressed that the developing instruction methodological analysis, measuring the consequences from pupil, instructors and school, managing and leading for school activities have unusually increased ( Kheang, n.d ) .
94.25 % of schools have implemented kid centered learning with 67.76 % of instructors widening content of lessons to run into the demands of pupils in local context, 82.96 % of instructors have prepared the learning/teaching, 79.06 % of instructors provide prep to pupils, 57.91 % of the instructors link learning/teaching activities to the library ( Kheang, p. 2 ) .
In this chapter, the method of trying and informations aggregation methods will be described every bit good as their restrictions and strengths. The ethical issues that occur through utilizing these methods will be described with an lineation of the stairss taken to turn to the concerns identified. Both quantitative and qualitative methods will be used for informations aggregation because they will let the research worker to garner rich information. The strengths and failings will be discussed within this chapter.
In this research I will utilize a questionnaire and concentrate groups to roll up informations. I plan to utilize a questionnaire administered to rate nine pupils as a lead-up to another questionnaire and focal point groups for class 10 pupils.
Strengths and Limitations of Research Methods
Data will be collected utilizing two different methods, paper questionnaires, and little focal point group interviews.
Questionnaires are used for informations aggregation because it is convenient and economical and can offer namelessness for the participants. McMillan and Schumacher ( 2001 ) explain that, ‘a questionnaire is comparatively economicalaˆ¦and can guarantee namelessness ‘ ( as cited in Sophal, 2011, p. 18 ) . Likewise, Gay, Mills and Airasian, ( 2009 ) found that, ‘questionnaires allow the research worker to roll up big sums of informations in a comparatively short sum of clip ‘ ( as cited in Sophal, 2011, p.18 ) . No pupil will be made to take part in this research paper and it will be clearly explained that there is no penalty for non take parting. Because the research worker is their ain instructor, the participants may be fearful or experience diffident. To avoid these possible jobs, the research worker will non travel into the category himself. The research worker will inquire the category proctor to administer and roll up the questionnaires from the pupils.
In the method of little focal point group interview, the research worker will acquire richer and clearer information than it is in the questionnaire because the participants feel safe and they can discourse without any concerns. To avoid losing or burying any responses from the participants, the research worker will utilize an audio recording equipment during the little focal point group interview.
The restriction of questionnaire is that the clip is likely to be short and some of the participants will non understand the inquiries good and they have no clip to inquire inquiries. As a consequence, the research worker might acquire some negative reactions. A restriction of a little focal point group interview is that confidentiality can non be guaranteed because it is a little focal point group interview and although the participants will be encouraged to maintain everything confidential all what is said in the interview and the actions of participants outside the group can non be assured.
Another restriction is that I am the first-time research worker and so I will be larning as I go. I will non hold the wisdom which comes from experience and I will do more errors.
Strengths and Restrictions of Sampling Techniques
In PPHS, there are around 60 pupils in each category, and the research worker will carry on the questionnaire in two categories. However, the pupils ‘ accomplishments in these categories are non the same because some of them are good and the others are hapless. Therefore, about 60 of male and female voluntary pupils in grade nine in this secondary school in Phnom Penh will be provided with a questionnaire by the research worker and invited to finish it. After finishing the questionnaires, approximately 10 per cent of them will be re-invited to take part in little focal point group treatment when they progress to rate 10.
The semi-structured inquiries will be used for the little focal point group treatment because the research worker can use the inquiries to the participants and promote them to react ( as cited in Sophal, 2011, p. 20 ) .
In this method, the research worker will take the purposive sampling for informations aggregation. Harmonizing to Gay, Mills & A ; Airasian ( 2009 ) , the strength of the purposive sampling is that sample choice is based on the research worker ‘s cognition and experience of the group to be sampled utilizing clear standards to steer the procedure ( as cited in Sophal, 2011 ) . However, the purposive sampling besides has its restriction in the research worker ‘s standards and ensuing sample choice.
The restrictions of this method of purposive sampling are that the sample will be from merely the voluntary pupils in grade nine and ten. The voluntary participants may non stand for the experiences of all male and female pupils. Those who do non volunteer may hold different positions but without their engagement their experiences will be unknown.
Data Collection Procedures
In this paper, the research worker will utilize a missive of account, questionnaires, recording equipment, and schoolrooms for roll uping the information. First, the research worker will reach to the school manager, and secondly talk with the decision makers to look into the figure of pupil keeping and abrasion in grade nine and ten. At the same clip, he will set up an assignment with the administrative staff and he will explicate the intent of survey in order to carry on the survey and deriving entree to information on the enrolled Numberss of grade nine and 10 pupils in PPHS. After that, the research worker will run into some category instructors to explicate the intent of the survey and inquire for their permission and cooperation. Cooperation from the school will assist the research worker behavior the survey and address issues of informed consent at a systems degree. Students who are interested in take parting in a little focal point group interview will bespeak their involvement utilizing the invitation attached to the questionnaire. The research worker will reach the pupils who have provided their contact inside informations and supply them and their parents with a transcript of the Information and Consent Forms for parents and for participants.
The procedure of this method will be conducted in two stairss. The first measure will be conducted with questionnaires when the participants are analyzing in grade nine, and the 2nd measure is when they pursue to rate 10. The focal point groups will merely be for grade 10 pupils.
The restriction of utilizing one school from one country will be the limited generalizability of the findings being collected from one school in Phnom Penh metropolis and non for the whole state. This survey will concentrate merely on the grounds why pupils give for make up one’s minding to come on from grade nine to rate 10s in a public secondary school in Phnom Penh. Although the issues are linked, no effort will be made to detect grounds for pupil abrasion.
In add-on, as the pupils know and respect the instructor who will be giving out the questionnaire, they might give the replies that will fulfill their instructor. Therefore, the information is likely to be somewhat biased.
Although the writer programs to utilize over 30 sub-factors in the questionnaire and over 80 pupils to roll up the information, some ethical issues are involved. As has already been explained, blessing is needed from the school principal and the instructors in the categories and besides understanding will necessitate to be sought from pupils. The pupils may experience force per unit area from their instructors, decision makers, and managers, but the research worker will make everything possible to guarantee that the pupils are non pressured to volunteer.